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  1. There are differences in the prevalence and severity of diseases between males, females not taking hormonal contraceptives (non-HC females) and females taking hormonal contraceptives (HC females). The aim of t...

    Authors: Sebastian Rauschert, Olaf Uhl, Berthold Koletzko, Trevor A. Mori, Lawrence J. Beilin, Wendy H. Oddy and Christian Hellmuth

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:10

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  2. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a multifunctional protein, and its deficiency leads to the development of atherosclerosis in mice. Patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) have reduced expression of ApoE in lung t...

    Authors: Soban Umar, Rod Partow-Navid, Gregoire Ruffenach, Andrea Iorga, Shayan Moazeni and Mansoureh Eghbali

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:9

    Content type: Research

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  3. Females are markedly underinvestigated in the biological and behavioral sciences due to the presumption that cyclic hormonal changes across the ovulatory cycle introduce excess variability to measures of inter...

    Authors: Benjamin L. Smarr, Azure D. Grant, Irving Zucker, Brian J. Prendergast and Lance J. Kriegsfeld

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:7

    Content type: Research

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  4. Physiological factors such as age and sex have been shown to be risk factors for adverse effects in the liver, including liver diseases and drug-induced liver injury. Previously, we have reported age- and sex-...

    Authors: Joshua C. Kwekel, Vikrant Vijay, Tao Han, Carrie L. Moland, Varsha G. Desai and James C. Fuscoe

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:6

    Content type: Research

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  5. Serum peptidases, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), neutral endopeptidase (NEP), aminopeptidase N (APN), and aminopeptidase A (APA), are important elements of...

    Authors: A. Fernández-Atucha, A. Izagirre, A. B. Fraile-Bermúdez, M. Kortajarena, G. Larrinaga, P. Martinez-Lage, E Echevarría and J. Gil

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:5

    Content type: Research

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  6. Eighty percent of patients who receive bariatric surgery are women, yet the majority of preclinical studies are in male rodents. Because sex differences drive hepatic gene expression and overall lipid metaboli...

    Authors: Bernadette E. Grayson, Ruth Gutierrez-Aguilar, Joyce E. Sorrell, Emily K. Matter, Michelle R. Adams, Philip Howles, Rebekah Karns, Randy J. Seeley and Darleen A. Sandoval

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:4

    Content type: Research

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  7. Gender-specific differences in hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity have been postulated to emerge during puberty. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to test the hypothesis that g...

    Authors: Bibian van der Voorn, Jonneke J. Hollanders, Johannes C. F. Ket, Joost Rotteveel and Martijn J. J. Finken

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:3

    Content type: Review

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  8. Corticotropin-releasing factor overexpressing (CRF-OE) male mice showed an inhibited feeding response to a fast, and lower plasma acyl ghrelin and Fos expression in the arcuate nucleus compared to wild-type (W...

    Authors: Lixin Wang, Miriam Goebel-Stengel, Pu-Qing Yuan, Andreas Stengel and Yvette Taché

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:2

    Content type: Research

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  9. There is inconclusive evidence about the role of sex as a risk factor for doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity. Recent experimental studies have shown that adult female rats are protected against DOX-induc...

    Authors: Marianne K. O. Grant, Davis M. Seelig, Leslie C. Sharkey and Beshay N. Zordoky

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:1

    Content type: Research

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  10. In animals with heteromorphic sex chromosomes, all sex differences originate from the sex chromosomes, which are the only factors that are consistently different in male and female zygotes. In mammals, the imb...

    Authors: Paul S. Burgoyne and Arthur P. Arnold

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:68

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  11. The higher prevalence of obesity-related metabolic disease in males suggests that female sex hormones provide protective mechanisms against the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Because browning of white adi...

    Authors: Sang-Nam Kim, Young-Suk Jung, Hyun-Jung Kwon, Je Kyung Seong, James G. Granneman and Yun-Hee Lee

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:67

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  12. Lifestyle factors may influence the risk of developing pancreatic cancer. Whereas cigarette smoking is an established risk factor, the effects of high alcohol intake and obesity are more uncertain. The aim of ...

    Authors: Gustav Andersson, Christoffer Wennersten, Signe Borgquist and Karin Jirström

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:66

    Content type: Research

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  13. Sexual dimorphism in blood pressure has been associated with differential expression of the angiotensin II (AII) receptors and with activity of the nervous system. It is generally accepted that ageing affects ...

    Authors: Wioletta Pijacka, Bethan Clifford, Dawid Walas, Chantal Tilburgs, Jaap A. Joles, Sarah McMullen and Simon C. Langley-Evans

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:64

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  14. Previous studies have indicated that inefficient energy utilization may play a pivotal role in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). However, whether plasma free fatty acid (FFA), a main energy substrate of heart...

    Authors: Chengzhi Yang, Changlin Zhang, Jiansong Yuan, Jingang Cui, Shengwen Liu, Fenghuan Hu, Weixian Yang, Xuanye Bi and Shubin Qiao

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:63

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  15. Previous studies have shown that total cholesterol (TC) levels are associated with stroke outcomes, but sex differences in the association between TC levels, especially a low TC level, and ischemic stroke outc...

    Authors: Guanen Zhou, Zhongping An, Wenjuan Zhao, Yan Hong, Haolin Xin, Xianjia Ning and Jinghua Wang

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:62

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  16. The C57BL/6J.YA/J mouse strain is a chromosome-substituted line where the original male-specific portion of chromosome Y (MSY) from C57BL/6J mice was substituted for that from A/J mice. In hearts from male C57BL/...

    Authors: Samantha D. Praktiknjo, Sylvie Picard and Christian F. Deschepper

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:61

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  17. Biological sex plays a prominent role in the prevalence and severity of a number of important stress-related gastrointestinal and immune-related diseases including IBS and allergy/anaphylaxis. Despite the esta...

    Authors: Emily Mackey, Saravanan Ayyadurai, Calvin S. Pohl, Susan D’ Costa, Yihang Li and Adam J. Moeser

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:60

    Content type: Research

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  18. Sex influences susceptibility to many infectious diseases, including some manifestations of leishmaniasis. The disease is caused by parasites that enter to the skin and can spread to the lymph nodes, spleen, l...

    Authors: Martina Slapničková, Valeriya Volkova, Marie Čepičková, Tatyana Kobets, Matyáš Šíma, Milena Svobodová, Peter Demant and Marie Lipoldová

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:59

    Content type: Research

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  19. NR5A1 is the key regulator of adrenal and gonadal development in both humans and mice. Recently, a missense substitution in human NR5A1, p.R92W, was shown to underlie gonadal dysgenesis in genetic males and testi...

    Authors: Mami Miyado, Masafumi Inui, Maki Igarashi, Yuko Katoh-Fukui, Kei Takasawa, Akiko Hakoda, Junko Kanno, Kenichi Kashimada, Kenji Miyado, Moe Tamano, Tsutomu Ogata, Shuji Takada and Maki Fukami

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:56

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

    Published on:

  20. The Sex and Gender Medical Education Summit: a roadmap for curricular innovation was a collaborative initiative of the American Medical Women's Association, Laura W. Bush Institute for Women’s Health, Mayo Cli...

    Authors: Eliza L. Chin, Marley Hoggatt, Alyson J. McGregor, Mary K. Rojek, Kimberly Templeton, Robert Casanova, Wendy S. Klein, Virginia M. Miller and Marjorie Jenkins

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7(Suppl 1):52

    Content type: Commentary

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 7 Supplement 1

  21. The goal of the Sex and Gender Specific Health (SGSH) curriculum at the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center (TTUHSC) is to advance the understanding of sex/gender differences, increase the awareness o...

    Authors: Steven M. Crooks, Jongpil Cheon, Robert Casanova and Marjorie Jenkins

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7(Suppl 1):49

    Content type: Commentary

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 7 Supplement 1

  22. Sex and gender influence disease presentation, treatment, healthcare access, and long-term outcomes. It is uncertain to what extent sex- and gender-based medicine (SGBM) content has been integrated into emerge...

    Authors: Tracy E. Madsen and Alyson J. McGregor

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7(Suppl 1):48

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 7 Supplement 1

  23. Sex and gender differences play a significant role in the course and outcome of conditions that affect specific organ systems in the human body. Research on differences in the effects of medical intervention h...

    Authors: Jennifer L. Plank-Bazinet, Annie Sampson, Leah R. Miller, Emmanuel O. Fadiran, Deborah Kallgren, Rajeev K. Agarwal, Whitney Barfield, Claudette E. Brooks, Lisa Begg, Amy C. Mistretta, Pamela E. Scott, Janine Austin Clayton and Terri L. Cornelison

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7(Suppl 1):47

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 7 Supplement 1

  24. There is a growing appreciation by the biomedical community that studying the impact of sex and gender on health, aging, and disease will lead to improvements in human health. Sex- and gender-based comparisons...

    Authors: Alyson J. McGregor, Memoona Hasnain, Kathryn Sandberg, Mary F. Morrison, Michelle Berlin and Justina Trott

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7(Suppl 1):46

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 7 Supplement 1

  25. Gender- and sex-specific medicine is defined as the practice of medicine based on the understanding that biology (dictated by sex chromosomes) and social roles (gender) are important in and have implications f...

    Authors: Marjorie R. Jenkins, Alyssa Herrmann, Amanda Tashjian, Tina Ramineni, Rithika Ramakrishnan, Donna Raef, Tracy Rokas and John Shatzer

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7(Suppl 1):45

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 7 Supplement 1

  26. In the era of individualized medicine, training future scientists and health-care providers in the principles of sex- and gender-based differences in health and disease is critical in order to optimize patient...

    Authors: Virginia M. Miller, Georgios Kararigas, Ute Seeland, Vera Regitz-Zagrosek, Karolina Kublickiene, Gillian Einstein, Robert Casanova and Marianne J. Legato

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7(Suppl 1):44

    Content type: Commentary

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 7 Supplement 1

  27. Despite overwhelming evidence that sex and gender are critical factors in the delivery and practice of medicine, there is no unified sex- and gender-based medicine (SGBM) undergraduate medical education curric...

    Authors: Alyson J. McGregor, Ana Núñez, Rebecca Barron, Robert Casanova and Eliza Lo Chin

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7(Suppl 1):43

    Content type: Commentary

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 7 Supplement 1

  28. Efforts to integrate gender medicine into medical school curricula have focused largely on the work of individual champions. Online sex and gender materials for undergraduate courses have also been developed a...

    Authors: Cara Tannenbaum and Geneviève Moineau

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7(Suppl 1):41

    Content type: Commentary

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 7 Supplement 1

  29. Sex- and gender-based medicine (SGBM) aims to (1) delineate and investigate sex- and gender-based differences in health, disease, and response to treatment and (2) apply that knowledge to clinical care to impr...

    Authors: Michael M. Song, Betsy G. Jones and Robert A. Casanova

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7(Suppl 1):40

    Content type: Commentary

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 7 Supplement 1

  30. Sex and Gender Medicine is a novel discipline that provides equitable medical care for society and improves outcomes for both male and female patients. The integration of sex- and gender-specific knowledge int...

    Authors: Ute Seeland, Ahmad T. Nauman, Alissa Cornelis, Sabine Ludwig, Mathias Dunkel, Georgios Kararigas and Vera Regitz-Zagrosek

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7(Suppl 1):39

    Content type: Commentary

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 7 Supplement 1

  31. Addressing healthcare disparities is a national priority for initiatives in precision and individualized medicine. An essential component of precision medicine is the understanding that sex and gender influenc...

    Authors: Juliana M. Kling, Steven H. Rose, Lisa N. Kransdorf, Thomas R. Viggiano and Virginia M. Miller

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7(Suppl 1):38

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 7 Supplement 1

  32. “Sex and Gender Medicine” is a novel medical discipline that takes into account the effects of sex and gender on the health of women and men. The Institute of Medicine in the USA declared in its 2001 and 2010 ...

    Authors: Shivani Dhawan, May Bakir, Erika Jones, Sarah Kilpatrick and C. Noel Bairey Merz

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7(Suppl 1):37

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 7 Supplement 1

  33. There are sex differences in the risk of development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). According to the developmental origins of health and disease paradigm (DOHaD), CVD originates in fetal life. This study exa...

    Authors: Sarah Schalekamp-Timmermans, Jerome Cornette, Albert Hofman, Willem A. Helbing, Vincent W. V. Jaddoe, Eric A. P. Steegers and Bero O. Verburg

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:55

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  34. Estrogen improves cardiac recovery after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) by yet incompletely understood mechanisms. Mitochondria play a crucial role in I/R injury through cytochrome c-dependent apoptosis activation...

    Authors: Carola Schubert, Valeria Raparelli, Christina Westphal, Elke Dworatzek, George Petrov, Georgios Kararigas and Vera Regitz-Zagrosek

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:53

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  35. Unbalanced dietary intakes of saturated (SFAs) and polyunsaturated (PUFAs) fatty acids can profoundly influence the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis and glucocorticoid secretions in relation to behavi...

    Authors: Matthias Nemeth, Eva Millesi, Verena Puehringer-Sturmayr, Arthur Kaplan, Karl-Heinz Wagner, Ruth Quint and Bernard Wallner

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:51

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  36. Women are twice as likely to be diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) compared to men, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this sex difference are unclear. Previous studies in the human postmortem...

    Authors: Rachel Puralewski, Georgia Vasilakis and Marianne L. Seney

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:50

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  37. A comparison of whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and total mercury (Hg) concentrations in mature males with those in mature females may provide insights into sex differences in behavior, metabolism, a...

    Authors: Charles P. Madenjian, Richard R. Rediske, David P. Krabbenhoft, Martin A. Stapanian, Sergei M. Chernyak and James P. O’Keefe

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:42

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  38. Thyroid dysfunction is more common in the female population, however, the impact of sex on disease characteristics has rarely been addressed. Using a murine model, we asked whether sex has an influence on phen...

    Authors: Helena Rakov, Kathrin Engels, Georg Sebastian Hönes, Karl-Heinz Strucksberg, Lars Christian Moeller, Josef Köhrle, Denise Zwanziger and Dagmar Führer

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:36

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  39. Organ transplantation, e.g., of the heart, liver, or kidney, is nowadays a routine strategy to counteract several lethal human pathologies. From literature data and from data obtained in Italy, a striking scen...

    Authors: Francesca Puoti, Andrea Ricci, Alessandro Nanni-Costa, Walter Ricciardi, Walter Malorni and Elena Ortona

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:35

    Content type: Commentary

    Published on:

  40. Early-life stress (ELS) is a recognized risk factor for chronic pain disorders, and females appear to be more sensitive to the negative effects of stress. Moreover, estrous cycle-related fluctuations in estrog...

    Authors: Rachel D. Moloney, Jahangir Sajjad, Tara Foley, Valeria D. Felice, Timothy G. Dinan, John F. Cryan and Siobhain M. O’Mahony

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:33

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  41. Cardiac hypertrophy is the most potent cardiovascular risk factor after age, and relative mortality risk linked with cardiac hypertrophy is greater in women. Ischemic heart disease is the most common form of c...

    Authors: James R. Bell, Claire L. Curl, Tristan W. Harding, Martin Vila Petroff, Stephen B. Harrap and Lea M. D. Delbridge

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:32

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  42. Considerable research effort has been invested in attempting to understand immune dysregulation leading to autoimmunity and target organ damage. In systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), patients can develop a sy...

    Authors: David A. Hart

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:31

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  43. Sex differences are known to exist in adipose and immune functions in the body, and sex steroid hormones are known to be involved in sexually dimorphic biological and pathological processes related to adipose-...

    Authors: K. Hoa Nguyen, Sudharsana R. Ande and Suresh Mishra

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:30

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

    Published on:

  44. The prevalence of osteoarthritis is higher in women than in men in every age group, and overall prevalence increases with advancing age. Sex-specific differences in the properties of osteoarthritic joint tissu...

    Authors: Qingfen Pan, Mary I. O’Connor, Richard D. Coutts, Sharon L. Hyzy, Rene Olivares-Navarrete, Zvi Schwartz and Barbara D. Boyan

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:27

    Content type: Research

    Published on: