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  1. Content type: Review

    Considerable research effort has been invested in attempting to understand immune dysregulation leading to autoimmunity and target organ damage. In systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), patients can develop a sy...

    Authors: David A. Hart

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:31

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  2. Content type: Letter to the Editor

    Sex differences are known to exist in adipose and immune functions in the body, and sex steroid hormones are known to be involved in sexually dimorphic biological and pathological processes related to adipose-...

    Authors: K. Hoa Nguyen, Sudharsana R. Ande and Suresh Mishra

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:30

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  3. Content type: Research

    Sexual differentiation in female mammals can be altered by the proximity of male littermates in utero, a phenomenon known as the intrauterine position effect (IUP). Among simian primates, callitrichines (marmo...

    Authors: Jeffrey A. French, Brett Frye, Jon Cavanaugh, Dongren Ren, Aaryn C. Mustoe, Lisa Rapaport and Jennifer Mickelberg

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:28

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  4. Content type: Research

    The prevalence of osteoarthritis is higher in women than in men in every age group, and overall prevalence increases with advancing age. Sex-specific differences in the properties of osteoarthritic joint tissu...

    Authors: Qingfen Pan, Mary I. O’Connor, Richard D. Coutts, Sharon L. Hyzy, Rene Olivares-Navarrete, Zvi Schwartz and Barbara D. Boyan

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:27

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  5. Content type: Research

    Males and females respond differently to diverse metabolic situations. Being raised in a small litter is reported to cause overnutrition that increases weight gain and predisposes an individual to metabolic di...

    Authors: Pilar Argente-Arizón, Purificación Ros, Francisca Díaz, Esther Fuente-Martin, David Castro-González, Miguel Ángel Sánchez-Garrido, Vicente Barrios, Manuel Tena-Sempere, Jesús Argente and Julie A. Chowen

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:26

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  6. Content type: Research

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among diabetic patients. Importantly, recent data highlight the apparent sexual dimorphism in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in diabetics with r...

    Authors: Sriram Devanathan, Timothy D. Whitehead, Nicole Fettig, Robert J. Gropler, Samuel Nemanich and Kooresh I. Shoghi

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:25

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  7. Content type: Research

    Sex differences in tobacco-related morbidity and mortality exist, with women experiencing more severe health consequences and greater difficulty with smoking cessation than men. One factor that likely contribu...

    Authors: Reagan R. Wetherill, Kanchana Jagannathan, Nathan Hager, Melanie Maron and Teresa R. Franklin

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:24

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  8. Content type: Research

    Although craniofacial sex differences have been extensively studied in humans, relatively little is known about when various dimorphic features manifest during postnatal life. Using cross-sectional data derive...

    Authors: Matthew J. Kesterke, Zachary D. Raffensperger, Carrie L. Heike, Michael L. Cunningham, Jacqueline T. Hecht, Chung How Kau, Nichole L. Nidey, Lina M. Moreno, George L. Wehby, Mary L. Marazita and Seth M. Weinberg

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:23

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  9. Content type: Research

    Serum uric acid (SUA) is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy in a wide spectrum of study population. However, whether this association exists in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM, includi...

    Authors: Changlin Zhang, Rong Liu, Jiansong Yuan, Jingang Cui, Fenghuan Hu, Weixian Yang, Yan Zhang, Chengzhi Yang and Shubin Qiao

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:22

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  10. Content type: Research

    Males and females have a different predisposition for the development of intestinal disorders, like inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We hypothesized that sex specific differences in intestinal immune response...

    Authors: Marlies Elderman, Adriaan van Beek, Eelke Brandsma, Bart de Haan, Huub Savelkoul, Paul de Vos and Marijke Faas

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:21

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  11. Content type: Review

    In 2001, the Institute of Medicine’s (IOM) report, “Exploring the Biological Contributions to Human Health: Does Sex Matter?” advocated for better understanding of the differences in human diseases between the...

    Authors: Pamela Ouyang, Nanette K. Wenger, Doris Taylor, Janet W. Rich-Edwards, Meir Steiner, Leslee J. Shaw, Sarah L. Berga, Virginia M. Miller and Noel Bairey Merz

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:19

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  12. Content type: Research

    Surfactant protein A (SP-A) contributes to lung immunity by regulating inflammation and responses to microorganisms invading the lung. The huge genetic variability of SP-A in humans implies that this protein i...

    Authors: Nikolaos Tsotakos, David S. Phelps, Christopher M. Yengo, Vernon M. Chinchilli and Joanna Floros

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:18

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  13. Content type: Research

    Human pigmentation is a polygenic quantitative trait with high heritability. In addition to genetic factors, it has been shown that pigmentation can be modulated by oestrogens and androgens via up- or down-reg...

    Authors: Barbara Hernando, Maider Ibarrola-Villava, Lara P. Fernandez, Maria Peña-Chilet, Marta Llorca-Cardeñosa, Sara S. Oltra, Santos Alonso, Maria Dolores Boyano, Conrado Martinez-Cadenas and Gloria Ribas

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:17

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  14. Content type: Research

    Prior to the start of cross-sex hormone therapy (CSH), androgenic progestins are often used to induce amenorrhea in female to male (FtM) pubertal adolescents with gender dysphoria (GD). The aim of this single-...

    Authors: Lloyd J. W. Tack, Margarita Craen, Karlien Dhondt, Heidi Vanden Bossche, Jolien Laridaen and Martine Cools

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:14

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  15. Content type: Commentary

    Translating policy into action is a complex task, with much debate surrounding the process whereby US and Canadian health funding agencies intend to integrate sex and gender science as an integral component of...

    Authors: Cara Tannenbaum, Jaclyn M. Schwarz, Janine A. Clayton, Geert J. de Vries and Casey Sullivan

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:13

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  16. Content type: Research

    Demographics influence kidney stone risk and the type of stone that is more likely to form. Common kidney stone risk factors include having a low urine volume and a high urine concentration. The goal of the cu...

    Authors: Majuran Perinpam, Erin B. Ware, Jennifer A. Smith, Stephen T. Turner, Sharon L. R. Kardia and John C. Lieske

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:12

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  17. Content type: Research

    Inhibition of irrelevant responses is an important aspect of cognitive control of a goal-directed behavior. Females and males show different levels of susceptibility to neuropsychological disorders such as imp...

    Authors: Farshad A. Mansouri, Daniel J. Fehring, Alexandra Gaillard, Shapour Jaberzadeh and Helena Parkington

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:11

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  18. Content type: Research

    The male-specific region of chromosome-Y (MSY) contributes to phenotypes outside of testis development and has a high rate of evolution between mammalian species. With a lack of genomic crossover, MSY is one o...

    Authors: Jeremy W. Prokop, Shirng-Wern Tsaih, Allison B. Faber, Shannon Boehme, Adam C. Underwood, Samuel Troyer, Lauren Playl, Amy Milsted, Monte E. Turner, Daniel Ely, Almir S. Martins, Marek Tutaj, Jozef Lazar, Melinda R. Dwinell and Howard J. Jacob

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:10

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  19. Content type: Research

    High-fat diets promoting obesity/type-2 diabetes can impair physiology and cognitive performance, although sex-dependent comparisons of these impairments are rarely made. Transient reductions in Ca2+-dependent af...

    Authors: Erica L. Underwood and Lucien T. Thompson

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:9

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  20. Content type: Research

    Painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis (PBS/IC) is a chronic disorder that is commonly seen in women who report a history of adversity in early life. Here, we test the hypothesis that early life stress...

    Authors: Ehsan Mohammadi, Dawn K. Prusator, Eleanor Healing, Robert Hurst, Rheal A. Towner, Amy B. Wisniewski and Beverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:8

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  21. Content type: Research

    Feeding behavior is regulated through an intricate array of anorexic and orexigenic hormones acting on the central nervous system (CNS). Some of these hormones may have differential effects in males and female...

    Authors: Jennifer E. Richard, Rozita H. Anderberg, Lorena López-Ferreras, Kajsa Olandersson and Karolina P. Skibicka

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:6

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  22. Content type: Research

    Renewed attention has been directed to the functions of the Y chromosome in the central nervous system during early human male development, due to the recent proposed involvement in neurodevelopmental diseases...

    Authors: Martin M. Johansson, Elin Lundin, Xiaoyan Qian, Mohammadreza Mirzazadeh, Jonatan Halvardson, Elisabeth Darj, Lars Feuk, Mats Nilsson and Elena Jazin

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:5

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  23. Content type: Research

    In rats, a sexually dimorphic spinal gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) system in the lumbosacral spinal cord projects to spinal centers that control erection and ejaculation. This system controls the sexual func...

    Authors: Takumi Oti, Keiko Takanami, Nao Katayama, Tomoca Edey, Keita Satoh, Tatsuya Sakamoto and Hirotaka Sakamoto

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:4

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  24. Content type: Research

    Current evidence indicates that estrogens, in particular 17β-estradiol (E2), play a crucial role in the gender bias of autoimmune diseases although the underlying molecular mechanisms have not yet been fully e...

    Authors: Angela Maselli, Fabrizio Conti, Cristiano Alessandri, Tania Colasanti, Cristiana Barbati, Marta Vomero, Laura Ciarlo, Mario Patrizio, Francesca Romana Spinelli, Elena Ortona, Guido Valesini and Marina Pierdominici

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:3

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  25. Content type: Research

    Maternal deprivation (MD) during neonatal life can have long-term effects on metabolism and behavior, with males and females responding differently. We previously reported that MD during 24 h at postnatal day ...

    Authors: Virginia Mela, Francisca Díaz, María Jesús Vázquez, Jesús Argente, Manuel Tena-Sempere, Maria-Paz Viveros and Julie A. Chowen

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:2

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  26. Content type: Letter to the Editor

    Brain morphology significantly differs between the sexes. It has been shown before that some of these differences are attributable to the sex-specific hormonal milieu. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) ...

    Authors: Matthias K. Auer, Rainer Hellweg, Peer Briken, Günter K. Stalla, Guy T’Sjoen and Johannes Fuss

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:1

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  27. Content type: Research

    In addition to its classical effects on opioid receptors, morphine can activate glia and stimulate the production of pro-inflammatory immune molecules which in turn counteract the analgesic properties of morph...

    Authors: Caitlin K. Posillico, Laurne S. Terasaki, Staci D. Bilbo and Jaclyn M. Schwarz

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2015 6:33

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  28. Content type: Research

    Although sex differences in heart failure (HF) prevalence and severity have been recognized, its molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We used a tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy model to determine the ...

    Authors: Liliana Kiczak, Alicja Tomaszek, Urszula Pasławska, Jacek Bania, Agnieszka Noszczyk-Nowak, Piotr Skrzypczak, Robert Pasławski, Maciej Zacharski, Adrian Janiszewski, Piotr Kuropka, Piotr Ponikowski and Ewa A. Jankowska

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2015 6:32

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  29. Content type: Research

    Naked mole-rats are eusocial mammals, living in large colonies with a single breeding female and 1–3 breeding males. Breeders are socially dominant, and only the breeders exhibit traditional sex differences in...

    Authors: Ashlyn Swift-Gallant, Kaiguo Mo, Deane E. Peragine, D. Ashley Monks and Melissa M. Holmes

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2015 6:31

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  30. Content type: Research

    Diabetes has been shown to be significantly associated with poor outcome after stroke. However, the sex differences in stroke outcome among patients with diabetes are unknown. Therefore, we aimed to assess the...

    Authors: Wenjuan Zhao, Zhongping An, Yan Hong, Guanen Zhou, Bin liu, Jingjing Guo, Yuanju Yang, Xianjia Ning and Jinghua Wang

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2015 6:29

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  31. Content type: Research

    Heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure variability, (BPV) and heart rate recovery (HRR) are measures that provide insight regarding autonomic function. Maximal exercise can affect autonomic function, and...

    Authors: Rebecca M. Kappus, Sushant M. Ranadive, Huimin Yan, Abbi D. Lane-Cordova, Marc D. Cook, Peng Sun, I. Shevon Harvey, Kenneth R. Wilund, Jeffrey A. Woods and Bo Fernhall

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2015 6:28

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  32. Content type: Research

    Tissue infiltration by neutrophils during acute inflammatory states causes substantial tissue injury. While the magnitude of tissue neutrophil accumulation in innate immune responses is profoundly greater in m...

    Authors: Shimona Madalli, Martina Beyrau, James Whiteford, Johan Duchene, Inderpal Singh Nandhra, Nimesh S. A. Patel, Madhur P. Motwani, Derek W. Gilroy, Christoph Thiemermann, Sussan Nourshargh and Ramona S. Scotland

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2015 6:27

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  33. Content type: Research

    Teleost fishes exhibit remarkably diverse and plastic sexual developmental patterns. One of the most astonishing is the rapid socially controlled female-to-male (protogynous) sex change observed in bluehead wr...

    Authors: Hui Liu, Melissa S. Lamm, Kim Rutherford, Michael A. Black, John R. Godwin and Neil J. Gemmell

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2015 6:26

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  34. Content type: Research

    Neuroimaging studies in younger adults have demonstrated sex differences in brain processing of painful experimental stimuli. Such differences may contribute to findings that women suffer disproportionately fr...

    Authors: Todd B. Monroe, John C. Gore, Stephen P. Bruehl, Margaret M. Benningfield, Mary S. Dietrich, Li Min Chen, Paul Newhouse, Roger Fillingim, BettyAnn Chodkowski, Sebastian Atalla, Julian Arrieta, Stephen M. Damon, Jennifer Urbano Blackford and Ronald L. Cowan

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2015 6:25

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  35. Content type: Research

    Despite the growing numbers of men and women with opioid use disorder in Canada, sex-specific issues in treatment have not been re-examined in the current population of patients with opioid addiction. We aimed...

    Authors: Monica Bawor, Brittany B. Dennis, Michael Varenbut, Jeff Daiter, David C. Marsh, Carolyn Plater, Andrew Worster, Meir Steiner, Rebecca Anglin, Guillaume Pare, Dipika Desai, Lehana Thabane and Zainab Samaan

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2015 6:21

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  36. Content type: Research

    While many sex differences in structure and function of the mammalian brain have been described, the molecular correlates of these differences are not broadly known. Also unknown is how sex differences at the ...

    Authors: Aaron Block, Md. Mahiuddin Ahmed, A. Ranjitha Dhanasekaran, Suhong Tong and Katheleen J. Gardiner

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2015 6:24

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  37. Content type: Research

    Dopamine (DA) neurons in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) in the preoptic area (POA) of mammals express estrogen receptors, regulate luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion, and show distinct sexual...

    Authors: Soham Saha, Saurabh Patil, Uday Singh, Omprakash Singh and Praful S. Singru

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2015 6:23

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  38. Content type: Research

    Women at risk of preterm delivery receive magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) in the pre-delivery phase to reduce their child’s risk of neurodevelopmental complications associated with preterm birth. However, the mechanism...

    Authors: Clint Gray, Mark H. Vickers, Rebecca M. Dyson, Clare M. Reynolds and Mary J. Berry

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2015 6:22

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  39. Content type: Review

    Autoimmune diseases (ADs) are estimated to affect between 5 and 8 % of the US population, and approximately 80 % of these patients are women. Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is an AD that occurs predominately in women...

    Authors: Jessica E. Brandt, Roberta Priori, Guido Valesini and DeLisa Fairweather

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2015 6:19

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  40. Content type: Research

    Imbalance in lipid metabolism and membrane lipid homeostasis has been observed in numerous diseases including heart failure and cardiotoxicity. Growing evidence links phospholipid alterations especially cardio...

    Authors: Maryline Moulin, Audrey Solgadi, Vladimir Veksler, Anne Garnier, Renée Ventura-Clapier and Pierre Chaminade

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2015 6:20

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  41. Content type: Letter to the Editor

    Females experience poorer recovery after ischemic stroke compared to males, even after controlling for age and stroke severity. IL-10 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine produced by T regulatory cells and Th2 CD4+ h...

    Authors: Sarah E. Conway, Meaghan Roy-O’Reilly, Brett Friedler, Ilene Staff, Gilbert Fortunato and Louise D. McCullough

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2015 6:17

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