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  1. Content type: Commentary

    The Sex and Gender Medical Education Summit: a roadmap for curricular innovation was a collaborative initiative of the American Medical Women's Association, Laura W. Bush Institute for Women’s Health, Mayo Cli...

    Authors: Eliza L. Chin, Marley Hoggatt, Alyson J. McGregor, Mary K. Rojek, Kimberly Templeton, Robert Casanova, Wendy S. Klein, Virginia M. Miller and Marjorie Jenkins

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7(Suppl 1):52

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    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 7 Supplement 1

  2. Content type: Research

    Sex and gender differences play a significant role in the course and outcome of conditions that affect specific organ systems in the human body. Research on differences in the effects of medical intervention h...

    Authors: Jennifer L. Plank-Bazinet, Annie Sampson, Leah R. Miller, Emmanuel O. Fadiran, Deborah Kallgren, Rajeev K. Agarwal, Whitney Barfield, Claudette E. Brooks, Lisa Begg, Amy C. Mistretta, Pamela E. Scott, Janine Austin Clayton and Terri L. Cornelison

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7(Suppl 1):47

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    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 7 Supplement 1

  3. Content type: Review

    There is a growing appreciation by the biomedical community that studying the impact of sex and gender on health, aging, and disease will lead to improvements in human health. Sex- and gender-based comparisons...

    Authors: Alyson J. McGregor, Memoona Hasnain, Kathryn Sandberg, Mary F. Morrison, Michelle Berlin and Justina Trott

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7(Suppl 1):46

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    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 7 Supplement 1

  4. Content type: Research

    Gender- and sex-specific medicine is defined as the practice of medicine based on the understanding that biology (dictated by sex chromosomes) and social roles (gender) are important in and have implications f...

    Authors: Marjorie R. Jenkins, Alyssa Herrmann, Amanda Tashjian, Tina Ramineni, Rithika Ramakrishnan, Donna Raef, Tracy Rokas and John Shatzer

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7(Suppl 1):45

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    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 7 Supplement 1

  5. Content type: Commentary

    Sex and Gender Medicine is a novel discipline that provides equitable medical care for society and improves outcomes for both male and female patients. The integration of sex- and gender-specific knowledge int...

    Authors: Ute Seeland, Ahmad T. Nauman, Alissa Cornelis, Sabine Ludwig, Mathias Dunkel, Georgios Kararigas and Vera Regitz-Zagrosek

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7(Suppl 1):39

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    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 7 Supplement 1

  6. Content type: Research

    Addressing healthcare disparities is a national priority for initiatives in precision and individualized medicine. An essential component of precision medicine is the understanding that sex and gender influenc...

    Authors: Juliana M. Kling, Steven H. Rose, Lisa N. Kransdorf, Thomas R. Viggiano and Virginia M. Miller

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7(Suppl 1):38

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    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 7 Supplement 1

  7. Content type: Research

    “Sex and Gender Medicine” is a novel medical discipline that takes into account the effects of sex and gender on the health of women and men. The Institute of Medicine in the USA declared in its 2001 and 2010 ...

    Authors: Shivani Dhawan, May Bakir, Erika Jones, Sarah Kilpatrick and C. Noel Bairey Merz

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7(Suppl 1):37

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    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 7 Supplement 1

  8. Content type: Research

    There are sex differences in the risk of development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). According to the developmental origins of health and disease paradigm (DOHaD), CVD originates in fetal life. This study exa...

    Authors: Sarah Schalekamp-Timmermans, Jerome Cornette, Albert Hofman, Willem A. Helbing, Vincent W. V. Jaddoe, Eric A. P. Steegers and Bero O. Verburg

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:55

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  9. Content type: Research

    Estrogen improves cardiac recovery after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) by yet incompletely understood mechanisms. Mitochondria play a crucial role in I/R injury through cytochrome c-dependent apoptosis activation...

    Authors: Carola Schubert, Valeria Raparelli, Christina Westphal, Elke Dworatzek, George Petrov, Georgios Kararigas and Vera Regitz-Zagrosek

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:53

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  10. Content type: Research

    Unbalanced dietary intakes of saturated (SFAs) and polyunsaturated (PUFAs) fatty acids can profoundly influence the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis and glucocorticoid secretions in relation to behavi...

    Authors: Matthias Nemeth, Eva Millesi, Verena Puehringer-Sturmayr, Arthur Kaplan, Karl-Heinz Wagner, Ruth Quint and Bernard Wallner

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:51

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  11. Content type: Research

    Women are twice as likely to be diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) compared to men, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this sex difference are unclear. Previous studies in the human postmortem...

    Authors: Rachel Puralewski, Georgia Vasilakis and Marianne L. Seney

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:50

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  12. Content type: Review

    A comparison of whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and total mercury (Hg) concentrations in mature males with those in mature females may provide insights into sex differences in behavior, metabolism, a...

    Authors: Charles P. Madenjian, Richard R. Rediske, David P. Krabbenhoft, Martin A. Stapanian, Sergei M. Chernyak and James P. O’Keefe

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:42

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  13. Content type: Research

    Thyroid dysfunction is more common in the female population, however, the impact of sex on disease characteristics has rarely been addressed. Using a murine model, we asked whether sex has an influence on phen...

    Authors: Helena Rakov, Kathrin Engels, Georg Sebastian Hönes, Karl-Heinz Strucksberg, Lars Christian Moeller, Josef Köhrle, Denise Zwanziger and Dagmar Führer

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:36

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  14. Content type: Commentary

    Organ transplantation, e.g., of the heart, liver, or kidney, is nowadays a routine strategy to counteract several lethal human pathologies. From literature data and from data obtained in Italy, a striking scen...

    Authors: Francesca Puoti, Andrea Ricci, Alessandro Nanni-Costa, Walter Ricciardi, Walter Malorni and Elena Ortona

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:35

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  15. Content type: Research

    Early-life stress (ELS) is a recognized risk factor for chronic pain disorders, and females appear to be more sensitive to the negative effects of stress. Moreover, estrous cycle-related fluctuations in estrog...

    Authors: Rachel D. Moloney, Jahangir Sajjad, Tara Foley, Valeria D. Felice, Timothy G. Dinan, John F. Cryan and Siobhain M. O’Mahony

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:33

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  16. Content type: Research

    Cardiac hypertrophy is the most potent cardiovascular risk factor after age, and relative mortality risk linked with cardiac hypertrophy is greater in women. Ischemic heart disease is the most common form of c...

    Authors: James R. Bell, Claire L. Curl, Tristan W. Harding, Martin Vila Petroff, Stephen B. Harrap and Lea M. D. Delbridge

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:32

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  17. Content type: Review

    Considerable research effort has been invested in attempting to understand immune dysregulation leading to autoimmunity and target organ damage. In systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), patients can develop a sy...

    Authors: David A. Hart

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:31

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  18. Content type: Letter to the Editor

    Sex differences are known to exist in adipose and immune functions in the body, and sex steroid hormones are known to be involved in sexually dimorphic biological and pathological processes related to adipose-...

    Authors: K. Hoa Nguyen, Sudharsana R. Ande and Suresh Mishra

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:30

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  19. Content type: Research

    Sexual differentiation in female mammals can be altered by the proximity of male littermates in utero, a phenomenon known as the intrauterine position effect (IUP). Among simian primates, callitrichines (marmo...

    Authors: Jeffrey A. French, Brett Frye, Jon Cavanaugh, Dongren Ren, Aaryn C. Mustoe, Lisa Rapaport and Jennifer Mickelberg

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:28

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  20. Content type: Research

    The prevalence of osteoarthritis is higher in women than in men in every age group, and overall prevalence increases with advancing age. Sex-specific differences in the properties of osteoarthritic joint tissu...

    Authors: Qingfen Pan, Mary I. O’Connor, Richard D. Coutts, Sharon L. Hyzy, Rene Olivares-Navarrete, Zvi Schwartz and Barbara D. Boyan

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:27

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  21. Content type: Research

    Males and females respond differently to diverse metabolic situations. Being raised in a small litter is reported to cause overnutrition that increases weight gain and predisposes an individual to metabolic di...

    Authors: Pilar Argente-Arizón, Purificación Ros, Francisca Díaz, Esther Fuente-Martin, David Castro-González, Miguel Ángel Sánchez-Garrido, Vicente Barrios, Manuel Tena-Sempere, Jesús Argente and Julie A. Chowen

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:26

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  22. Content type: Research

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among diabetic patients. Importantly, recent data highlight the apparent sexual dimorphism in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in diabetics with r...

    Authors: Sriram Devanathan, Timothy D. Whitehead, Nicole Fettig, Robert J. Gropler, Samuel Nemanich and Kooresh I. Shoghi

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:25

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  23. Content type: Research

    Sex differences in tobacco-related morbidity and mortality exist, with women experiencing more severe health consequences and greater difficulty with smoking cessation than men. One factor that likely contribu...

    Authors: Reagan R. Wetherill, Kanchana Jagannathan, Nathan Hager, Melanie Maron and Teresa R. Franklin

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:24

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  24. Content type: Research

    Although craniofacial sex differences have been extensively studied in humans, relatively little is known about when various dimorphic features manifest during postnatal life. Using cross-sectional data derive...

    Authors: Matthew J. Kesterke, Zachary D. Raffensperger, Carrie L. Heike, Michael L. Cunningham, Jacqueline T. Hecht, Chung How Kau, Nichole L. Nidey, Lina M. Moreno, George L. Wehby, Mary L. Marazita and Seth M. Weinberg

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:23

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  25. Content type: Research

    Serum uric acid (SUA) is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy in a wide spectrum of study population. However, whether this association exists in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM, includi...

    Authors: Changlin Zhang, Rong Liu, Jiansong Yuan, Jingang Cui, Fenghuan Hu, Weixian Yang, Yan Zhang, Chengzhi Yang and Shubin Qiao

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:22

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  26. Content type: Research

    Males and females have a different predisposition for the development of intestinal disorders, like inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We hypothesized that sex specific differences in intestinal immune response...

    Authors: Marlies Elderman, Adriaan van Beek, Eelke Brandsma, Bart de Haan, Huub Savelkoul, Paul de Vos and Marijke Faas

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:21

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  27. Content type: Review

    In 2001, the Institute of Medicine’s (IOM) report, “Exploring the Biological Contributions to Human Health: Does Sex Matter?” advocated for better understanding of the differences in human diseases between the...

    Authors: Pamela Ouyang, Nanette K. Wenger, Doris Taylor, Janet W. Rich-Edwards, Meir Steiner, Leslee J. Shaw, Sarah L. Berga, Virginia M. Miller and Noel Bairey Merz

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:19

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  28. Content type: Research

    Surfactant protein A (SP-A) contributes to lung immunity by regulating inflammation and responses to microorganisms invading the lung. The huge genetic variability of SP-A in humans implies that this protein i...

    Authors: Nikolaos Tsotakos, David S. Phelps, Christopher M. Yengo, Vernon M. Chinchilli and Joanna Floros

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:18

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  29. Content type: Research

    Human pigmentation is a polygenic quantitative trait with high heritability. In addition to genetic factors, it has been shown that pigmentation can be modulated by oestrogens and androgens via up- or down-reg...

    Authors: Barbara Hernando, Maider Ibarrola-Villava, Lara P. Fernandez, Maria Peña-Chilet, Marta Llorca-Cardeñosa, Sara S. Oltra, Santos Alonso, Maria Dolores Boyano, Conrado Martinez-Cadenas and Gloria Ribas

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:17

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  30. Content type: Research

    Prior to the start of cross-sex hormone therapy (CSH), androgenic progestins are often used to induce amenorrhea in female to male (FtM) pubertal adolescents with gender dysphoria (GD). The aim of this single-...

    Authors: Lloyd J. W. Tack, Margarita Craen, Karlien Dhondt, Heidi Vanden Bossche, Jolien Laridaen and Martine Cools

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:14

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  31. Content type: Commentary

    Translating policy into action is a complex task, with much debate surrounding the process whereby US and Canadian health funding agencies intend to integrate sex and gender science as an integral component of...

    Authors: Cara Tannenbaum, Jaclyn M. Schwarz, Janine A. Clayton, Geert J. de Vries and Casey Sullivan

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:13

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  32. Content type: Research

    Demographics influence kidney stone risk and the type of stone that is more likely to form. Common kidney stone risk factors include having a low urine volume and a high urine concentration. The goal of the cu...

    Authors: Majuran Perinpam, Erin B. Ware, Jennifer A. Smith, Stephen T. Turner, Sharon L. R. Kardia and John C. Lieske

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:12

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  33. Content type: Research

    Inhibition of irrelevant responses is an important aspect of cognitive control of a goal-directed behavior. Females and males show different levels of susceptibility to neuropsychological disorders such as imp...

    Authors: Farshad A. Mansouri, Daniel J. Fehring, Alexandra Gaillard, Shapour Jaberzadeh and Helena Parkington

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:11

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  34. Content type: Research

    The male-specific region of chromosome-Y (MSY) contributes to phenotypes outside of testis development and has a high rate of evolution between mammalian species. With a lack of genomic crossover, MSY is one o...

    Authors: Jeremy W. Prokop, Shirng-Wern Tsaih, Allison B. Faber, Shannon Boehme, Adam C. Underwood, Samuel Troyer, Lauren Playl, Amy Milsted, Monte E. Turner, Daniel Ely, Almir S. Martins, Marek Tutaj, Jozef Lazar, Melinda R. Dwinell and Howard J. Jacob

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:10

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  35. Content type: Research

    High-fat diets promoting obesity/type-2 diabetes can impair physiology and cognitive performance, although sex-dependent comparisons of these impairments are rarely made. Transient reductions in Ca2+-dependent af...

    Authors: Erica L. Underwood and Lucien T. Thompson

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:9

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  36. Content type: Research

    Painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis (PBS/IC) is a chronic disorder that is commonly seen in women who report a history of adversity in early life. Here, we test the hypothesis that early life stress...

    Authors: Ehsan Mohammadi, Dawn K. Prusator, Eleanor Healing, Robert Hurst, Rheal A. Towner, Amy B. Wisniewski and Beverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:8

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  37. Content type: Research

    Feeding behavior is regulated through an intricate array of anorexic and orexigenic hormones acting on the central nervous system (CNS). Some of these hormones may have differential effects in males and female...

    Authors: Jennifer E. Richard, Rozita H. Anderberg, Lorena López-Ferreras, Kajsa Olandersson and Karolina P. Skibicka

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:6

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  38. Content type: Research

    Renewed attention has been directed to the functions of the Y chromosome in the central nervous system during early human male development, due to the recent proposed involvement in neurodevelopmental diseases...

    Authors: Martin M. Johansson, Elin Lundin, Xiaoyan Qian, Mohammadreza Mirzazadeh, Jonatan Halvardson, Elisabeth Darj, Lars Feuk, Mats Nilsson and Elena Jazin

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:5

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  39. Content type: Research

    In rats, a sexually dimorphic spinal gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) system in the lumbosacral spinal cord projects to spinal centers that control erection and ejaculation. This system controls the sexual func...

    Authors: Takumi Oti, Keiko Takanami, Nao Katayama, Tomoca Edey, Keita Satoh, Tatsuya Sakamoto and Hirotaka Sakamoto

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:4

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  40. Content type: Research

    Current evidence indicates that estrogens, in particular 17β-estradiol (E2), play a crucial role in the gender bias of autoimmune diseases although the underlying molecular mechanisms have not yet been fully e...

    Authors: Angela Maselli, Fabrizio Conti, Cristiano Alessandri, Tania Colasanti, Cristiana Barbati, Marta Vomero, Laura Ciarlo, Mario Patrizio, Francesca Romana Spinelli, Elena Ortona, Guido Valesini and Marina Pierdominici

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:3

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  41. Content type: Research

    Maternal deprivation (MD) during neonatal life can have long-term effects on metabolism and behavior, with males and females responding differently. We previously reported that MD during 24 h at postnatal day ...

    Authors: Virginia Mela, Francisca Díaz, María Jesús Vázquez, Jesús Argente, Manuel Tena-Sempere, Maria-Paz Viveros and Julie A. Chowen

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:2

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  42. Content type: Letter to the Editor

    Brain morphology significantly differs between the sexes. It has been shown before that some of these differences are attributable to the sex-specific hormonal milieu. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) ...

    Authors: Matthias K. Auer, Rainer Hellweg, Peer Briken, Günter K. Stalla, Guy T’Sjoen and Johannes Fuss

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:1

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