Skip to main content

A note from the Editor-in-Chief, Jill B Becker

I am excited about the interest in publishing in Biology of Sex Differences from the scientific community. We are receiving many excellent articles for review daily. As the breadth of articles increases, we want to make sure that the importance of the sex differences being reported are appreciated by the entire scientific community and by the lay audience as well. With this in mind, we are initiating the inclusion of a “Plain English” summary after the abstract. We are also asking that titles and abstracts avoid jargon and abbreviations to enhance a broader appreciation of the findings reported in the article.

Please refer to the “About” page for further details. Note also the changes to ‘Criteria’ that have been made including the requirement for 5 suggested reviewers included in the appropriate field during submission:

In your cover letter, please note two members of our Editorial Board to review your manuscript , dependent on the relevant expertise. In light of this, please ensure that there are no conflicts of interest.

Watch for new special collections announcements coming soon!

New Featured Article: Defining Biological Sex

Sex differences in the human brain: a roadmap for more careful analysis and interpretation of a biological reality

Defining biological sex by gonadal and chromosomal characteristics at birth, multiple large datasets reflecting current best-practice show convergent evidence for small to moderate sex differences in human brain volume above and beyond sex-differences in brain size. For example, M>F in putamen, amygdala, hippocampus, and temporal pole volume, F>M in volume of the cingulate, superior parietal, and lateral prefrontal cortices. In contrast, reviews of past studies obscure this consistency because methodological heterogeneity is not accounted for. We do not yet know if any of the reproducible sex-differences in regional human brain anatomy have any functional implications. Separate studies would be required to address this hypothesis. There also diverse biological, psychological and social factors that could contribute to regional sex-differences in human brain anatomy. Untangling these causes is hard in humans, but may be helped by research in animal models. Finally, the existence of sex-differences in human brain anatomy is based on comparisons between two groups defined by biological sex (often self-reported). This frame of reference does not address intersex conditions, gender diversity or intersectional identities. However - with these boundaries in mind -  we conclude that stratifying people based on biological sex does identify reproducible sex-based group differences in regional brain volume. The best evidence to date suggests that these differences are a biological reality, but that more work is needed to understand their causes and (if any) functional consequences. We also argue that the laden nature of sex and gender in history and society mean that  - despite the idealized objectivity of the scientific method - reports of sex-based differences in the human brain should be disseminated in a pro-actively anti-sexist manner. We offer this Commentary from DeCasien et al regarding sex-based differences in the human brain and argue that it is not sexist to discuss sex differences in the human brain. In fact, it is pro-human to understand where there are and where there are not differences in the human brain based on the sex of the individual.

New special collections now publishing

Read more about our newly launched Collection on the topic of Sex/Gender Differences in Cancer.

Aims and scope

Biology of Sex Differences is unlike any other scientific journal: articles focus on sex differences in all aspects of an individual or organism. Everything from molecules to behavior and from studies of cellular function to clinical research studies are reported in this journal. Biology of Sex Differences aims to improve understanding of basic biological principles mediating sex differences and foster development of therapeutic and diagnostic tools that are sex-dependent. To the extent that gender influences biological outcomes, this journal also is interested in research addressing gender differences. Articles are expected to report results that directly compare sex/gender differences in the statistical analysis.

Biology of Sex Differences addresses a broad audience of readers. Articles are expected to report and discuss their findings using language that is accessible to non-specialists in the field, please minimize discipline-specific jargon. The Title and Abstract should be understandable to non-specialists. The novelty of the findings should be clear to all readers, non-experts as well as experts. To this end, the use of abbreviations should also be kept to a minimum. We now require a Plain English summary in addition to the Abstract.

Biology of Sex Differences is the official journal of the Organization for the Study of Sex Differences, and a publication of the Society for Women's Health Research.



Sex/Gender Differences in Social Determinants of Health at Specialized Centers of Research Excellence (SCORE) on Sex Differences

We invite invites SCOR(E) Directors to submit articles from their Specialized Centers of Research (Excellence) addressing sex/gender differences in social determinants of health as it pertains to their health topics of focus.


Sex/Gender Differences in Cancer

We invite authors to submit articles to this Collection addressing the mechanisms underlying sex/gender differences in cancer incidence, treatment response, and survival. 

Sex Differences and Similarities in the Human Brain

We invite authors to submit empirical studies, meta-analyses, and theoretical articles to this Collection that aims to address on what and where sex-related variation can be found, but also how large or small, and how relevant or trivial these differences seem to be.


Sex Differences in COVID-19
We welcome submissions of original articles and reviews on preclinical and clinical research in which findings of new sex differences in COVID-19 are reported. We are particularly interested in studies in which potential mechanisms are tested.

Sex Differences in Development
We are interested in primary research or review articles that address sex differences in development that are influenced by environmental, social, genetic, hormonal, or other biological factors. Outcome measures may include brain, behavior and/or physiological processes in children/adolescents or animal models of these processes.


Sex differences in response to androgens: physiological and pathophysiological 
Guest Editor: Licy Yanes Cardozo

Hypertension, preeclampsia, renal and cardiovascular disease in pregnancy
Guest Editor: Vesna Garovic


Sex Differences in Obesity, Insulin Resistance, Metabolic Syndrome, and the Microbiome
Guest Editor: Kate Denton


Jill Becker, PhD, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI USA

Associate Editors
Licy L. Yanes Cardozo, MD, PhD, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS USA
Rebecca L. Cunningham, PhD, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX, USA
Joshua Rubin, MD, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, USA

Founding Editor
Arthur P Arnold, PhD, University of California, Los Angeles, USA

Latest Tweets

Your browser needs to have JavaScript enabled to view this timeline

Organization for the Study of Sex Differences (OSSD) President’s Message By Liisa Galea, Ph.D.

New Content ItemLiisa Galea PhD is the President of the OSSD. She is a Professor in the Department of Psychology, a member of the Djavad Mowifaghian Centre for Brain Health, the Lead of the Women’s Health Research Cluster, and Health Advisor to VPRI at University of British Columbia in beautiful Vancouver, Canada.

Dr. Galea is a world-renowned expert in sex differences and sex hormone influences on brain and behaviour in depression and Alzheimer’s disease. She is a leading contributor to the discovery and dissemination of knowledge locally, nationally, and globally through high-impact scientific publications and mobilization platforms that champion women working in mental health research.

Dr. Galea’s research can be found here

Affiliated with

  • Society for Women's Health Research

Annual Journal Metrics

  • 2022 Citation Impact
    7.9 - 2-year Impact Factor
    6.9 - 5-year Impact Factor
    1.755 - SNIP (Source Normalized Impact per Paper)
    1.961 - SJR (SCImago Journal Rank)

    2023 Speed
    9 days submission to first editorial decision for all manuscripts (Median)
    137 days submission to accept (Median)

    2023 Usage 
    1,611 Altmetric mentions