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Considering sex and gender in Epidemiology: a challenge beyond terminology. From conceptual analysis to methodological strategies

Epidemiologists need tools to measure effects of gender, a complex concept originating in the social sciences which is not easily operationalized in the discipline. In this study, the authors aim to clarify helpful measures, paths, effects, and analytical strategies to explore mechanisms of health differences between men and women.

New special collections now publishing

Read more about our newly launched special series on the topics of Sex Differences in Development and Sex Differences in COVID-19.

Aims and scope

Unlike any other scientific journal, Biology of Sex Differences focuses on sex differences in all aspects of an individual or organism: from molecules to behavior and from studies of cellular function to clinical research studies. This journal aims to improve understanding of basic biological principles mediating sex differences and foster development of therapeutic and diagnostic tools that are sex-specific. To the extent that gender influences biological outcomes, this journal also is interested in research addressing gender differences. Articles are expected to report results that directly compare sex/gender differences in the statistical analysis.

Biology of Sex Differences is the official journal of the Organization for the Study of Sex Differences, and a publication of the Society for Women's Health Research.


Upcoming Collections


Sex Differences in COVID-19
We welcome submissions of original articles and reviews on preclinical and clinical research in which findings of new sex differences in COVID-19 are reported. We are particularly interested in studies in which potential mechanisms are tested.

Sex Differences in Development
We are interested in primary research or review articles that address sex differences in development that are influenced by environmental, social, genetic, hormonal, or other biological factors. Outcome measures may include brain, behavior and/or physiological processes in children/adolescents or animal models of these processes.


Sex differences in response to androgens: physiological and pathophysiological 
Guest Editor: Licy Yanes Cardozo

Hypertension, preeclampsia, renal and cardiovascular disease in pregnancy
Guest Editor: Vesna Garovic


Sex Differences in Obesity, Insulin Resistance, Metabolic Syndrome, and the Microbiome
Guest Editor: Kate Denton


Jill BeckerUniversity of Michigan, USA

Associate Editors
Jeanette H. MagnusFaculty of Medicine, University of Oslo
Licy L. Yanes Cardozo, University of Mississippi Medical Center

Founding Editor
Arthur P Arnold, University of California, Los Angeles, USA

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Rhonda Voskuhl, M.D. President of the OSSD

Message from the OSSD President

Rhonda Voskuhl, M.D., President of OSSD

Rhonda Voskuhl M.D. is the current President of the OSSD. She holds the Jack H. Skirball Chair and is a Professor in the Department of Neurology and the Director of the Multiple Sclerosis Program at the David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).

To read about some of the latest work by Dr. Voskuhl click here.

The Organization for the Study of Sex Differences (OSSD) is an international research society focused on the study of sex as a biologic variable in health and disease. Our members have tremendous expertise in a vast array of disciplines within science and medicine, linked by the common theme of the study of sex differences. Our annual meeting brings together these investigators to share mechanistic insights underlying sex differences to promote thinking outside the box of each specific discipline. OSSD also does advocacy and education regarding the importance of understanding sex differences that can translate into novel treatments optimally tailored for each sex for the benefit of both women and men. The Biology of Sex Differences is the official journal of the OSSD and a partner in this shared mission.

Affiliated with

  • Society for Women's Health Research

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