Skip to main content


Aims and scope

Biology of Sex Differences is unlike any other scientific journal: articles focus on sex differences in all aspects of an individual or organism. Everything from molecules to behavior and from studies of cellular function to clinical research studies are reported in this journal. Biology of Sex Differences aims to improve understanding of basic biological principles mediating sex differences and foster development of therapeutic and diagnostic tools that are sex-dependent. To the extent that gender influences biological outcomes, this journal also is interested in research addressing gender differences. Articles are expected to report results that directly compare sex/gender differences in the statistical analysis.

Biology of Sex Differences addresses a broad audience of readers. Articles are expected to report and discuss their findings using language that is accessible to non-specialists in the field, please minimize discipline-specific jargon. The Title and Abstract should be understandable to non-specialists. The novelty of the findings should be clear to all readers, non-experts as well as experts. To this end the use of abbreviations should also be kept to a minimum. We now require a Plain English summary in addition to the Abstract.

Studies that investigate a mechanism or system mediating sex differences are a priority for consideration in Biology of Sex Differences. Manuscripts reporting an observed sex differences that do not test a well-argued specific hypothesis, or are reporting results in a limited population or a specific animal model, are less likely to be considered of interest to our readers. Articles that report or review research that integrates information across topic areas are welcome.

Topical areas of research include, but are not limited to, the biology of sex differences in:

•    Addiction
•    Aging
•    Cancer
•    Cardiovascular Disease
•    Clinical Disorders and Treatments
•    Development
•    Immunology
•    Infectious Disease
•    Environmental Health Exposures
•    Genetics/Epigenetics
•    Mental Health
•    Metabolism/Diabetes
•    Microbiome
•    Musculoskeletal System
•    Neurodegeneration
•    Neuroendocrinology
•    Neurology
•    Neuroscience
•    Nutrition
•    Physiology
•    Pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes
•    Menopause/Andropause
•    Respiratory health and Disease
•    Stress
•    Systems Biology 

This open access Springer Nature journal is the highly respected journal of the Organization for the Study of Sex Differences, and is co-published with the Society for Women’s Health Research.For further information about the material covered by Biology of Sex Differences, please see our “Submissions Guideline” below and to view details of our Editorial Board Members, please visit the “Editorial Board” page.

Open access

All articles published by Biology of Sex Differences are made freely and permanently accessible online immediately upon publication, without subscription charges or registration barriers. Further information about open access can be found here.

As authors of articles published in Biology of Sex Differences you are the copyright holders of your article and have granted to any third party, in advance and in perpetuity, the right to use, reproduce or disseminate your article, according to the BMC license agreement.

For those of you who are US government employees or are prevented from being copyright holders for similar reasons, BMC can accommodate non-standard copyright lines. Please contact us if further information is needed.

Article processing charges (APC)

Authors who publish open access in Biology of Sex Differences are required to pay an article processing charge (APC). The APC price will be determined from the date on which the article is accepted for publication.

The current APC, subject to VAT or local taxes where applicable, is: £2390.00/$3190.00/€2690.00

Visit our open access support portal and our Journal Pricing FAQs for further information.

Open access funding

Visit Springer Nature’s open access funding & support services for information about research funders and institutions that provide funding for APCs.

Springer Nature offers agreements that enable institutions to cover open access publishing costs. Learn more about our open access agreements to check your eligibility and discover whether this journal is included.

Springer Nature offers APC waivers and discounts for articles published in our fully open access journals whose corresponding authors are based in the world’s lowest income countries (see our APC waivers and discounts policy for further information). Requests for APC waivers and discounts from other authors will be considered on a case-by-case basis, and may be granted in cases of financial need (see our open access policies for journals for more information). All applications for discretionary APC waivers and discounts should be made at the point of manuscript submission; requests made during the review process or after acceptance are unable to be considered.

Indexing services

All articles published in Biology of Sex Differences are included in:

  • CAS
  • DOAJ
  • OAIster
  • Medline
  • PubMed
  • PubMed Central
  • Science Citation Index Expanded
  • Scopus
  • Zetoc
  • Zoological Record

The full text of all articles is deposited in digital archives around the world to guarantee long-term digital preservation. You can also access all articles published by BioMed Central on SpringerLink.

Peer-review policy

Peer-review is the system used to assess the quality of a manuscript before it is published. Independent researchers in the relevant research area assess submitted manuscripts for originality, validity and significance to help editors determine whether the manuscript should be published in their journal. You can read more about the peer-review process here.

Biology of Sex Differences operates a single-blind peer-review system, where the reviewers are aware of the names and affiliations of the authors, but the reviewer reports provided to authors are anonymous.

The benefit of single-blind peer review is that it is the traditional model of peer review that many reviewers are comfortable with, and it facilitates a dispassionate critique of a manuscript.

Submitted manuscripts will generally be reviewed by two or more experts who will be asked to evaluate whether the manuscript is scientifically sound and coherent, whether it duplicates already published work, and whether or not the manuscript is sufficiently clear for publication. The Editors will reach a decision based on these reports and, where necessary, they will consult with members of the Editorial Board.

Editorial policies

All manuscripts submitted to Biology of Sex Differences should adhere to BioMed Central's editorial policies.

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Citing articles in Biology of Sex Differences

Articles in Biology of Sex Differences  should be cited in the same way as articles in a traditional journal. Because articles are not printed, they do not have page numbers; instead, they are given a unique article number.

Article citations follow this format:

Authors: Title. Biol sex dif [year], [volume number]:[article number].

e.g. Roberts LD, Hassall DG, Winegar DA, Haselden JN, Nicholls AW, Griffin JL: Increased hepatic oxidative metabolism distinguishes the action of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor delta from Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor gamma in the Ob/Ob mouse. Biol sex dif 2009, 1:115.

refers to article 115 from Volume 1 of the journal.

Appeals and complaints

Authors who wish to appeal a rejection or make a complaint should follow the procedure outlined in the BMC Editorial Policies.

Benefits of publishing with BMC

High visibility

Biology of Sex Differences's open access policy allows maximum visibility of articles published in the journal as they are available to a wide, global audience. 

Speed of publication

Biology of Sex Differences offers a fast publication schedule whilst maintaining rigorous peer review; all articles must be submitted online, and peer review is managed fully electronically (articles are distributed in PDF form, which is automatically generated from the submitted files). Articles will be published with their final citation after acceptance, in both fully browsable web form, and as a formatted PDF.


Online publication in Biology of Sex Differences gives you the opportunity to publish large datasets, large numbers of color illustrations and moving pictures, to display data in a form that can be read directly by other software packages so as to allow readers to manipulate the data for themselves, and to create all relevant links (for example, to PubMed, to sequence and other databases, and to other articles).

Promotion and press coverage

Articles published in Biology of Sex Differences are included in article alerts and regular email updates. Some may be highlighted on Biology of Sex Differences’s pages and on the BMC homepage.

In addition, articles published in Biology of Sex Differences may be promoted by press releases to the general or scientific press. These activities increase the exposure and number of accesses for articles published in Biology of Sex Differences. A list of articles recently press-released by journals published by BMC is available here.


As an author of an article published in Biology of Sex Differences you retain the copyright of your article and you are free to reproduce and disseminate your work (for further details, see the BMC license agreement).

For further information about the advantages of publishing in a journal from BMC, please click here.