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  1. In addition to biological sex, gender, defined as the sociocultural dimension of being a woman or a man, plays a central role in health. However, there are so far few approaches to quantify gender in a retrosp...

    Authors: Ahmad Tauseef Nauman, Hassan Behlouli, Nicholas Alexander, Friederike Kendel, Johanna Drewelies, Konstantinos Mantantzis, Nora Berger, Gert G. Wagner, Denis Gerstorf, Ilja Demuth, Louise Pilote and Vera Regitz-Zagrosek

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2021 12:15

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  2. Sex differences in experimental stroke outcomes are well documented, such that adult males have a greater infarct volume, increased stroke-induced mortality, and more severe sensory-motor impairment. Based on ...

    Authors: Yumna El-Hakim, Kathiresh Kumar Mani, Amir Eldouh, Sivani Pandey, Maria T. Grimaldo, Alan Dabney, Rachel Pilla and Farida Sohrabji

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2021 12:14

    Content type: Research

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  3. Men have a higher risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) early in life, while women have a higher risk later in life. The sex-related differences in CVD risk, especially by age, could be related to sphingolipid...

    Authors: Mirthe Muilwijk, Nardie Callender, Susan Goorden, Frédéric M. Vaz and Irene G. M. van Valkengoed

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2021 12:13

    Content type: Research

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  4. Over the last decades, a central role for vitamin D in immune modulation has been well established. The active form of vitamin D, i.e., 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, through the interaction with vitamin D receptor,...

    Authors: Maria Luisa Dupuis, Maria Teresa Pagano, Marina Pierdominici and Elena Ortona

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2021 12:12

    Content type: Review

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  5. Normotensive premenopausal women show a vagal predominance of cardiac autonomic modulation, whereas age-matched men show a predominance of sympathetic modulation. However, some women develop systemic arterial ...

    Authors: Stella V. Philbois, Tábata P. Facioli, Ada C. Gastaldi, Jhennyfer A. L. Rodrigues, Jens Tank, Thauane H. Fares, Karine P. Rodrigues and Hugo C. D. Souza

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2021 12:11

    Content type: Research

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  6. Early life adversity is widely recognized as a key risk factor for early developmental perturbations and contributes to the presentation of neuropsychiatric disorders in adulthood. Neurodevelopmental disorders...

    Authors: Eldin Jašarević, Patrick M. Hecht, Kevin L. Fritsche, David C. Geary, Rocío M. Rivera and David Q. Beversdorf

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2021 12:10

    Content type: Research

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  7. Differences in outcomes for women and men after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in chronic total occlusion (CTO) patients remain controversial. Herein, we compared the clinical outcomes by sex in CTO ...

    Authors: Xuhe Gong, Li Zhou, Xiaosong Ding, Hongwei Li and Hui Chen

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2021 12:9

    Content type: Research

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  8. Sex differences in stroke have been attributed to the neuroprotective effects of estrogen, yet most clinical trials of estrogen supplementation for stroke prevention have failed. The contribution of sex hormon...

    Authors: Bharti Manwani, Pamela Fall, Liang Zhu, Meaghan Roy O’Reilly, Sarah Conway, Ilene Staff and Louise D. McCullough

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2021 12:8

    Content type: Research

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  9. Cellular sex has rarely been considered as a biological variable in preclinical research, even when the pathogenesis of diseases with predictable sex differences is studied. In this perspective, proteomics, an...

    Authors: Maria Grazia Cattaneo, Cristina Banfi, Maura Brioschi, Donatella Lattuada and Lucia M. Vicentini

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2021 12:7

    Content type: Research

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  10. Fetal sex is known to modify the course and complications of pregnancy, with recent evidence of sex-differential fetal influences on the maternal immune and endocrine systems. In turn, heightened inflammation ...

    Authors: Whitney Cowell, Elena Colicino, Talia Askowitz, Farida Nentin and Rosalind J. Wright

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2021 12:6

    Content type: Research

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  11. Two important clinical features of preeclampsia (PE) are hypertension and fetal growth restriction. The reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) preclinical rat model of PE exhibits both of these features. Mo...

    Authors: Mark W. Cunningham Jr, Lorena M. Amaral, Nathan E. Campbell, Denise C. Cornelius, Tarek Ibrahim, Venkata Ramana Vaka and Babbette LaMarca

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2021 12:4

    Content type: Research

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  12. Inadequate copper intake and increased fructose consumption represent two important nutritional problems in the USA. Dietary copper-fructose interactions alter gut microbial activity and contribute to the deve...

    Authors: Ming Song, Fang Yuan, Xiaohong Li, Xipeng Ma, Xinmin Yin, Eric C. Rouchka, Xiang Zhang, Zhongbin Deng, Russell A. Prough and Craig J. McClain

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2021 12:3

    Content type: Research

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  13. Shorter telomere length (TL) may indicate premature cellular aging and increased risk for disease. While there is substantial evidence for shorter TL in individuals suffering from psychiatric disorders, data i...

    Authors: Louisia Starnino, Gilles Dupuis, Lambert Busque, Vincent Bourgoin, Marie-Pierre Dubé, David Busseuil and Bianca D’Antono

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2021 12:2

    Content type: Research

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  14. Pioglitazone is a promising therapeutic method for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients with or without type 2 diabetes. However, there is remarkable variability in treatment response. We analyzed...

    Authors: Hongmei Yan, Weiyun Wu, Xinxia Chang, Mingfeng Xia, Sicheng Ma, Liu Wang and Jian Gao

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2021 12:1

    Content type: Research

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  15. MicroRNAs indirectly orchestrate myriads of essential biological processes. A wide diversity of miRNAs of the neurodevelopmental importance characterizes the brain tissue, which, however, exhibits region-speci...

    Authors: Klaudia Pawlina-Tyszko, Maria Oczkowicz, Artur Gurgul, Tomasz Szmatoła and Monika Bugno-Poniewierska

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:67

    Content type: Research

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  16. Sex differences in clinical characteristics and prognosis of vasospastic angina (VA) have not been well elucidated. This study was performed to investigate sex-specific characteristics and predictors for long-...

    Authors: Hack-Lyoung Kim, Sang-Ho Jo, Hyun-Jin Kim, Min-Ho Lee, Won-Woo Seo and Sang Hong Baek

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:66

    Content type: Research

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  17. Women are more vulnerable than men to the neurotoxicity and severe brain damage caused by chronic heavy alcohol use. In addition, brain damage due to chronic heavy alcohol use may be associated with sex-depend...

    Authors: Mi Ran Choi, Jasmin Sanghyun Han, Yeung-Bae Jin, Sang-Rae Lee, In Young Choi, Heejin Lee, Hyun Cho and Dai-Jin Kim

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:65

    Content type: Research

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  18. Recent evidence by our laboratory demonstrates that women and female mice endogenously express higher endothelial mineralocorticoid receptor (ECMR) than males. Mounting clinical evidence also indicates that al...

    Authors: Jessica L. Faulkner, Emily Lluch, Simone Kennard, Galina Antonova, Iris Z. Jaffe and Eric J. Belin de Chantemèle

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:64

    Content type: Research

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  19. While the higher prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in women is clear, studies suggest that biological sex may also influence AD pathogenesis. However, mechanisms behind these differences are not clear. To...

    Authors: Dany Arsenault, Cyntia Tremblay, Vincent Emond and Frédéric Calon

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:63

    Content type: Research

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  20. It is a long established fact that sex is an important factor that influences the transcriptional regulatory processes of an organism. However, understanding sex-based differences in gene expression has been l...

    Authors: Tianyuan Lu and Jessica C. Mar

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:61

    Content type: Research

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  21. Women report more work-related pain and neck/shoulder musculoskeletal disorders than men. For the same absolute workload, due to lower strength, females generally work at a higher relative intensity, which cou...

    Authors: Matthew Slopecki, Karen Messing and Julie N. Côté

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:60

    Content type: Research

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  22. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is suggested to decrease fatigability in some individuals but not others. Sex differences in response to IPC may account for this variability and few studies systematically inves...

    Authors: Hugo M. Pereira, Felipe F. de Lima, Bruno M. Silva and André F. Kohn

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:59

    Content type: Research

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  23. Asparagine and aspartate homeostasis are linked with type 2 diabetes (T2D). This study aimed to explore whether asparagine and aspartate metabolism interacted with sex and age to increase the risk of T2D.

    Authors: Hui-Huan Luo, Xiao-Fei Feng, Xi-Lin Yang, Rui-Qin Hou and Zhong-Ze Fang

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:58

    Content type: Research

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  24. Among the unknowns posed by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, the role of biological sex to explain disease susceptibility and progression is still a matter of debate, with limited sex-disaggre...

    Authors: Valeria Raparelli, Luigi Palmieri, Marco Canevelli, Flavia Pricci, Brigid Unim, Cinzia Lo Noce, Emanuele R. Villani, Paula A. Rochon, Louise Pilote, Nicola Vanacore and Graziano Onder

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:57

    Content type: Research

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  25. Current understanding about health care in the gender diverse population is limited by the lack of community-based, longitudinal data, especially in the USA. We sought to characterize a community-based cohort ...

    Authors: Haleigh A. James, Alice Y. Chang, Reese L. Imhof, Aradhana Sahoo, Monique M. Montenegro, Nicole R. Imhof, Cesar A. Gonzalez, Aida N. Lteif, Todd B. Nippoldt and Caroline J. Davidge-Pitts

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:55

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  26. The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) during pregnancy precedes a high maternal mortality rate of 20–40%. AKI during pregnancy has multiple etiologies; however, the more common are maternal hypertensive d...

    Authors: Jamie Szczepanski, Shauna-Kay Spencer, Ashley Griffin, Teylor Bowles, Jan Michael Williams, Patrick B. Kyle, John Polk Dumas, Sarah Araji and Kedra Wallace

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:54

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  27. Premenopausal women have a lower risk of hypertension compared to age-matched men and postmenopausal women. P2Y2 and P2Y4 purinoceptor can be considered potential contributors to hypertension due to their emergin...

    Authors: Eman Y. Gohar, Malgorzata Kasztan, Shali Zhang, Edward W. Inscho and David M. Pollock

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:52

    Content type: Research

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  28. Most persons with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) remain undiagnosed or are diagnosed in later life. To address the need for earlier diagnosis, we previously assessed miRNAs in the blood plasma of pre...

    Authors: Nihal A. Salem, Amanda H. Mahnke, Alan B. Wells, Alexander M. Tseng, Lyubov Yevtushok, Natalya Zymak-Zakutnya, Wladimir Wertlecki, Christina D. Chambers and Rajesh C. Miranda

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:51

    Content type: Research

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  29. Sex-related differences in the occurrence of autoimmune diseases is well documented, with females showing a greater propensity to develop these diseases than their male counterparts. Sex hormones, namely dihyd...

    Authors: Ninaad Lasrado, Ting Jia, Chandirasegaran Massilamany, Rodrigo Franco, Zsolt Illes and Jay Reddy

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:50

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  30. Women are more susceptible to multiple sclerosis (MS) than men by a ratio of approximately 3:1. However, being male is a risk factor for worse disability progression. Inflammatory genes have been linked to sus...

    Authors: Rhonda R. Voskuhl, Kevin Patel, Friedemann Paul, Stefan M. Gold, Michael Scheel, Joseph Kuchling, Graham Cooper, Susanna Asseyer, Claudia Chien, Alexander U. Brandt, Cassandra Eve Meyer and Allan MacKenzie-Graham

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:49

    Content type: Research

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  31. Acutely, testosterone (TES) and other androgens are efficacious vasodilators, both in vitro and in vivo; however, their long-term effects on arterial blood pressure (BP) remain unclear. It was hypothesized tha...

    Authors: Andrea E. Hanson, Mercedes Perusquia and John N. Stallone

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:48

    Content type: Research

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  32. Many patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) are women. Exploring mechanisms underlying the sex differences may improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of HFpEF. Studies f...

    Authors: Susan Stienen, João Pedro Ferreira, Masatake Kobayashi, Gregoire Preud’homme, Daniela Dobre, Jean-Loup Machu, Kevin Duarte, Emmanuel Bresso, Marie-Dominique Devignes, Natalia López Andrés, Nicolas Girerd, Svend Aakhus, Giuseppe Ambrosio, Hans-Peter Brunner-La Rocca, Ricardo Fontes-Carvalho, Alan G. Fraser…

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:47

    Content type: Research

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  33. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common liver cancer and is highly malignant. Male prevalence and frequent activation of the Ras signaling pathway are distinct characteristics of HCC. However, the un...

    Authors: Huiling Li, Zhuona Rong, Hong Wang, Nan Zhang, Chunwen Pu, Yi Zhao, Xu Zheng, Chuanyi Lei, Yang Liu, Xiaoqin Luo, Jun Chen, Fujin Wang, Aiguo Wang and Jingyu Wang

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:46

    Content type: Research

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  34. Estradiol and testosterone are powerful steroid hormones that impact brain function in numerous ways. During development, these hormones can act to program the adult brain in a male or female direction. During...

    Authors: Damian G. Zuloaga, Ashley L. Heck, Rose M. De Guzman and Robert J. Handa

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:44

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  35. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) of the stomach are the most common GISTs. The risk, incidence, and outcome of cancer are different between the sexes. Whether gender is related to the prognosis of gastr...

    Authors: Jianfang Rong, Sihai Chen, Conghua Song, Huan Wang, Qiaoyun Zhao, Rulin Zhao, Yajing He, Lili Yan, Yanping Song, Fangfei Wang and Yong Xie

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:43

    Content type: Research

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  36. Human X and Y chromosomes share an evolutionary origin and, as a consequence, sequence similarity. We investigated whether the sequence homology between the X and Y chromosomes affects the alignment of RNA-Seq...

    Authors: Kimberly C. Olney, Sarah M. Brotman, Jocelyn P. Andrews, Valeria A. Valverde-Vesling and Melissa A. Wilson

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:42

    Content type: Research

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  37. Gender difference in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is an important topic in the field of cardiovascular medicine. In this study, we focused on the mortality difference of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), whi...

    Authors: Zujie Gao, Jiang Xiong, Zengsheng Chen, Xiaoyan Deng, Zaipin Xu, Anqiang Sun and Yubo Fan

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:41

    Content type: Research

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  38. Individuals exposed to gestational stressors such as alcohol exhibit a spectrum of growth patterns, suggesting individualized responses to the stressors. We hypothesized that intrauterine growth responses to g...

    Authors: Sze Ting Cecilia Kwan, Brandon H. Presswood, Kaylee K. Helfrich, Joshua W. Baulch, Sandra M. Mooney and Susan M. Smith

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:40

    Content type: Research

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  39. X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is the mechanism by which the X-linked gene dosage is adjusted between the sexes. Evidence shows that many sex-specific diseases have their basis in X chromosome biology. While ...

    Authors: Xinzhu Zhang, Yuhong Li, Lei Ma, Guofu Zhang, Min Liu, Chuanyue Wang, Yi Zheng and Rena Li

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:39

    Content type: Research

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  40. There are inconsistent interpretations of the interrelationship of adiposity, anthropometric indices, and blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive patients. Additionally, whether these relationships differ between ...

    Authors: Youzhou Chen, Zhuoli Zhang, Jihong Wang, Huayi Sun, Xingshan Zhao, Xiaoguang Cheng and Qiong Zhao

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:38

    Content type: Research

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  41. Recent data suggest that excessive alcohol use is increasing among women and older adults. Such trends are concerning, as women are more vulnerable to alcohol-related health consequences, and such health probl...

    Authors: MacKenzie R. Peltier, Terril L. Verplaetse, Walter Roberts, Kelly Moore, Catherine Burke, Phillip L. Marotta, Sarah Phillips, Philip H. Smith and Sherry A. McKee

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:37

    Content type: Research

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  42. Studies have recently examined the role of epigenetic mechanisms in preeclampsia pathophysiology. One commonly examined epigenetic process is DNA methylation. This heritable epigenetic marker is involved in ma...

    Authors: A. Cirkovic, V. Garovic, J. Milin Lazovic, O. Milicevic, M. Savic, N. Rajovic, N. Aleksic, T. Weissgerber, A. Stefanovic, D. Stanisavljevic and N. Milic

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:36

    Content type: Review

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  43. Women show greater pathological Tau biomarkers than men along the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) continuum, particularly among apolipoprotein ε-E4 (APOE4) carriers; however, the reason for this sex difference in unk...

    Authors: Erin E. Sundermann, Matthew S. Panizzon, Xu Chen, Murray Andrews, Douglas Galasko and Sarah J. Banks

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:33

    Content type: Research

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