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  1. Research

    Stress amplifies sex differences in primate prefrontal profiles of gene expression

    Stress is a recognized risk factor for mood and anxiety disorders that occur more often in women than men. Prefrontal brain regions mediate stress coping, cognitive control, and emotion. Here, we investigate s...

    Alex G. Lee, Megan Hagenauer, Devin Absher, Kathleen E. Morrison, Tracy L. Bale, Richard M. Myers, Stanley J. Watson, Huda Akil, Alan F. Schatzberg and David M. Lyons

    Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:36

    Published on: 2 November 2017

  2. Research

    Sex influences eQTL effects of SLE and Sjögren’s syndrome-associated genetic polymorphisms

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS) are autoimmune disorders characterized by autoantibodies, dysregulated B cells, and notably high female-to-male incidence ratios. Genome-...

    Magdalena Lindén, Jorge I. Ramírez Sepúlveda, Tojo James, Gudny Ella Thorlacius, Susanna Brauner, David Gómez-Cabrero, Tomas Olsson, Ingrid Kockum and Marie Wahren-Herlenius

    Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:34

    Published on: 25 October 2017

  3. Review

    The protective role of estrogen and estrogen receptors in cardiovascular disease and the controversial use of estrogen therapy

    Epidemiologic studies have previously suggested that premenopausal females have reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) when compared to age-matched males, and the incidence and severity of CVD incre...

    Andrea Iorga, Christine M. Cunningham, Shayan Moazeni, Gregoire Ruffenach, Soban Umar and Mansoureh Eghbali

    Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:33

    Published on: 24 October 2017

  4. Letter to the Editor

    Genetic sex determination of mice by simplex PCR

    Investigating fetal development in mice necessitates the determination of fetal sex. However, whilst the sex of adult and juvenile mice can be readily distinguished from anogenital distance, the sex of fetal a...

    Simon James Tunster

    Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:31

    Published on: 17 October 2017

  5. Research

    The effects of 17 alpha-estradiol to inhibit inflammation in vitro

    17 Alpha-estradiol (17 α-E2) is a natural, non-feminizing stereoisomer of 17 beta-estradiol (17 β-E2). Whereas much is known about the physiological effects of 17 β-E2, much less is known about 17 α-E2. For ex...

    Roberta S. Santos, Luciana A. de Fatima, Aaron P. Frank, Everardo M. Carneiro and Deborah J. Clegg

    Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:30

    Published on: 6 September 2017

  6. Research

    Sex differences in thermal detection and thermal pain threshold and the thermal grill illusion: a psychophysical study in young volunteers

    Sex-related differences in human thermal and pain sensitivity are the subject of controversial discussion. The goal of this study in a large number of subjects was to investigate sex differences in thermal and...

    Beate Averbeck, Lena Seitz, Florian P. Kolb and Dieter F. Kutz

    Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:29

    Published on: 1 September 2017

  7. Research

    Genomic upregulation of cardiac Cav1.2α and NCX1 by estrogen in women

    Women have a higher risk of lethal arrhythmias than men in long QT syndrome type 2 (LQTS2), but the mechanisms remain uncertain due to the limited availability of healthy control human tissue. We have previous...

    Rita Papp, Glenna C. L. Bett, Agnieszka Lis, Randall L. Rasmusson, István Baczkó, András Varró and Guy Salama

    Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:26

    Published on: 14 August 2017

  8. Research

    Long-term follow-up in primary Sjögren’s syndrome reveals differences in clinical presentation between female and male patients

    Despite men being less prone to develop autoimmune diseases, male sex has been associated with a more severe disease course in several systemic autoimmune diseases. In the present study, we aimed to investigat...

    Jorge I. Ramírez Sepúlveda, Marika Kvarnström, Per Eriksson, Thomas Mandl, Katrine Brække Norheim, Svein Joar Johnsen, Daniel Hammenfors, Malin V. Jonsson, Kathrine Skarstein, Johan G. Brun, Lars Rönnblom, Helena Forsblad-d’Elia, Sara Magnusson Bucher, Eva Baecklund, Elke Theander, Roald Omdal…

    Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:25

    Published on: 8 August 2017

  9. Review

    Is HPA axis reactivity in childhood gender-specific? A systematic review

    In adults, hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity shows sexual dimorphism, and this is thought to be a mechanism underlying sex-specific disease incidence. Evidence is scarce on whether these sex d...

    Jonneke J. Hollanders, Bibian van der Voorn, Joost Rotteveel and Martijn J. J. Finken

    Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:23

    Published on: 11 July 2017

  10. Research

    Inclusion of sex and gender in biomedical research: survey of clinical research proposed at the University of Pennsylvania

    The 2015 National Institutes of Health (NIH) policy that sex be considered as a biological variable (SABV) is now a critical part of the peer-review process for NIH funding as well as publication in several hi...

    Anne Freeman, Patrick Stanko, Lily N. Berkowitz, Neanta Parnell, Anastasia Zuppe, Tracy L. Bale, Tracy Ziolek and C. Neill Epperson

    Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:22

    Published on: 21 June 2017

  11. Research

    Sex-dependent effects of maternal corticosterone and SSRI treatment on hippocampal neurogenesis across development

    Postpartum depression affects approximately 15% of mothers and represents a form of early life adversity for developing offspring. Postpartum depression can be treated with prescription antidepressants like fl...

    Aarthi R. Gobinath, Joanna L. Workman, Carmen Chow, Stephanie E. Lieblich and Liisa A. M. Galea

    Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:20

    Published on: 2 June 2017

  12. Research

    Sex differences in the development of vascular and renal lesions in mice with a simultaneous deficiency of Apoe and the integrin chain Itga8

    Apoe-deficient (Apoe −/−) mice develop progressive atherosclerotic lesions with age but no severe renal pathology in the absence of additional challenges. We...

    Ines Marek, Maurizio Canu, Nada Cordasic, Manfred Rauh, Gudrun Volkert, Fabian B. Fahlbusch, Wolfgang Rascher, Karl F. Hilgers, Andrea Hartner and Carlos Menendez-Castro

    Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:19

    Published on: 30 May 2017

  13. Research

    Difference in clinical presentation between women and men in incident primary Sjögren’s syndrome

    A more severe disease phenotype has been reported in men compared to women in several rheumatic diseases. However, studies have not conclusively established sex-related clinical features in primary Sjögren’s s...

    Jorge I. Ramírez Sepúlveda, Marika Kvarnström, Susanna Brauner, Chiara Baldini and Marie Wahren-Herlenius

    Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:16

    Published on: 12 May 2017

  14. Research

    Does the sex of one’s co-twin affect height and BMI in adulthood? A study of dizygotic adult twins from 31 cohorts

    The comparison of traits in twins from opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) dizygotic twin pairs is considered a proxy measure of prenatal hormone exposure. To examine possible prenatal hormonal influences on a...

    Leonie H. Bogl, Aline Jelenkovic, Eero Vuoksimaa, Linda Ahrenfeldt, Kirsi H. Pietiläinen, Maria A. Stazi, Corrado Fagnani, Cristina D’Ippolito, Yoon-Mi Hur, Hoe-Uk Jeong, Judy L. Silberg, Lindon J. Eaves, Hermine H. Maes, Gombojav Bayasgalan, Danshiitsoodol Narandalai, Tessa L. Cutler…

    Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:14

    Published on: 27 April 2017

  15. Research

    Sex differences in insular cortex gyri responses to a brief static handgrip challenge

    Cardiovascular disease varies between sexes, suggesting male-female autonomic control differences. Insular gyri help coordinate autonomic regulation and show a sex-dependent response to a sympathetic challenge.

    Paul M. Macey, Nicholas S. Rieken, Jennifer A. Ogren, Katherine E. Macey, Rajesh Kumar and Ronald M. Harper

    Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:13

    Published on: 20 April 2017

  16. Research

    Muscle function and fatigability of trunk flexors in males and females

    Optimal function of the abdominal muscles is necessary for several life functions including lifting and carrying tasks. Sex differences in strength and fatigability are established for many limb muscles and ba...

    Rita E. Deering, Jonathon W. Senefeld, Tatyana Pashibin, Donald A. Neumann and Sandra K. Hunter

    Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:12

    Published on: 17 April 2017

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