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  1. Osteocytic microRNA21 (miR21) removal alters cytokine production and bone mass by modulating osteoclast and osteoblast differentiation and activity. Removing osteocytic miR21 increases osteoclast/osteoblast nu...

    Authors: Alyson L. Essex, Padmini Deosthale, Joshua R. Huot, Hannah M. Davis, Nicholas Momeni, Andrea Bonetto and Lilian I. Plotkin
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:56
  2. Research on sex ratios of Lewy body dementia is controversial, established in small samples, and rarely focused on prodromal stage. The objective is to investigate the clinical sex ratios (men/women) and their...

    Authors: Jinghuan Gan, Zhichao Chen, Zhihong Shi, Xudong Li, Shuai Liu, Yiming Liu, Hongcan Zhu, Lu Shen, Guili Zhang, Yong You, Qihao Guo, Nan Zhang, Yang Lv, Baozhi Gang, Junliang Yuan and Yong Ji
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:55
  3. Hypoxia is associated with pregnancy complications, such as preeclampsia, placental abruption, and gestational sleep apnea. Hypoxic insults during gestation can impact the brain maturation of cortical and subc...

    Authors: E. Nicole Wilson, Steve Mabry, Jessica L. Bradshaw, Jennifer J. Gardner, Nataliya Rybalchenko, Rachel Engelland, Oluwadarasimi Fadeyibi, Oluwatobiloba Osikoya, Spencer C. Cushen, Styliani Goulopoulou and Rebecca L. Cunningham
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:54
  4. Studies on the association between urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (uACR) and diabetes are limited. We aimed to examine the association between uACR and diabetes among adults in the United States, with par...

    Authors: Yumeng Shi, Huan Hu, Zuxiang Wu, Ji Wu, Zhiqiang Chen and Ping Li
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:53
  5. The association between habitual glucosamine use and incident gout has not been examined in previous studies. We aimed to evaluate the association of habitual use of glucosamine with the risk of gout in genera...

    Authors: Mengyi Liu, Ziliang Ye, Yanjun Zhang, Sisi Yang, Qimeng Wu, Chun Zhou, Panpan He, Yuanyuan Zhang, Xiaoqin Gan and Xianhui Qin
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:52
  6. Habituation to repeated stress refers to a progressive reduction in the stress response following multiple exposures to the same, predictable stressor. We previously demonstrated that the posterior division of...

    Authors: Brian F. Corbett, Kimberly Urban, Sandra Luz, Jason Yan, Jay Arner and Seema Bhatnagar
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:51
  7. The fetal placenta is a source of hormones and immune factors that play a vital role in maintaining pregnancy and facilitating fetal growth. Cells in this extraembryonic compartment match the chromosomal sex o...

    Authors: Amy E. Braun, Olivia R. Mitchel, Tania L. Gonzalez, Tianyanxin Sun, Amy E. Flowers, Margareta D. Pisarska and Virginia D. Winn
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:50
  8. For more than 150 years, research studies have documented greater variability across males than across females (“greater male variability”—GMV) over a broad range of behavioral and morphological measures. In p...

    Authors: Van Summers
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:49
  9. Offspring born to preeclamptic mothers are prone to obesity, diabetes and hypertension in later life, but still, studies investigating the underlying mechanism are limited. Here, we aimed to investigate the im...

    Authors: Mohammadmehdi Hassanzadeh-Taheri, Mahtab Mohammadifard, Zahra Erfanian and Mehran Hosseini
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:48
  10. Differences in adolescents and adults by sex in blood levels of leptin and adiposity have been described; however, it is not yet clear if these differences arise from the prepubertal stage in subjects with a n...

    Authors: Jose Guillermo Ortega-Avila, Harry García-Muñoz, Alejandro Segura Ordoñez and Blanca C. Salazar Contreras
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:47
  11. The aim of this study was to analyze the association of physical activity and its intensity with arterial stiffness and vascular aging and differences by sex in a Spanish population with intermediate cardiovas...

    Authors: Leticia Gómez-Sánchez, Emiliano Rodríguez-Sánchez, Rafel Ramos, Ruth Marti, Marta Gómez-Sánchez, Cristina Lugones-Sánchez, Olaya Tamayo-Morales, Susana Gonzalez Sánchez, Fernando Rigo, Luis García-Ortiz and Manuel A. Gómez-Marcos
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:46
  12. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), characterized by androgen excess and ovulatory dysfunction, is associated with a high prevalence of obesity and insulin resistance (IR) in women. We demonstrated that sodium–g...

    Authors: Jacob E. Pruett, Steven J. Everman, Ngoc H. Hoang, Faridah Salau, Lucy C. Taylor, Kristin S. Edwards, Jonathan P. Hosler, Alexandra M. Huffman, Damian G. Romero and Licy L. Yanes Cardozo
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:45
  13. Tendinopathies are common overuse disorders that arise both in athletes and the general population. Available tendon treatments are used both for women and men without distinction. However, the existence of a ...

    Authors: Camilla Mondini Trissino da Lodi, Manuela Salerno, Giulia Merli, Pieter Brama, Florien Jenner and Giuseppe Filardo
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:44
  14. The presence, magnitude, and significance of sex differences in the human brain are hotly debated topics in the scientific community and popular media. This debate is largely fueled by studies containing stron...

    Authors: Alex R. DeCasien, Elisa Guma, Siyuan Liu and Armin Raznahan
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:43
  15. Females are more likely to present with anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared to males, which are associated with disrupted hippocampal integrity. Sex differences in the stru...

    Authors: Shunya Yagi, Amanda Lee, Nadine Truter and Liisa A. M. Galea
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:42
  16. Despite recent work demonstrating that female rodents and humans do not show greater variance in behavior and physiology than males due to ovulatory cycles, many researchers still default to using males in the...

    Authors: Benjamin Smarr and Lance J. Kriegsfeld
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:41
  17. KDM6A is a demethylase encoded by a gene with female-biased expression due to escape from X inactivation. Its main role is to facilitate gene expression through removal of the repressive H3K27me3 mark, with ev...

    Authors: Wenxiu Ma, He Fang, Nicolas Pease, Galina N. Filippova, Christine M. Disteche and Joel B. Berletch
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:40
  18. In utero exposure to nicotine, largely assessed by smoking, is a risk factor for impaired offspring health, while potential effects of non-combustible nicotine use such as snus (oral moist tobacco), are less w...

    Authors: Birgitte Kordt Sundet, Ina Kreyberg, Anne Cathrine Staff, Karin Cecilie Lødrup Carlsen, Karen Eline Stensby Bains, Jens Petter Berg, Berit Granum, Guttorm Haugen, Gunilla Hedlin, Christine Monceyron Jonassen, Live Solveig Nordhagen, Björn Nordlund, Eva Maria Rehbinder, Knut Rudi, Corina Silvia Rueegg, Katrine Dønvold Sjøborg…
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:39
  19. Alcohol septal ablation (ASA) has been proven to reverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). However, there are no studies on the effect of sex on LV remodeling after ASA. We...

    Authors: You-Zhou Chen, Xing-Shan Zhao, Jian-Song Yuan, Yan Zhang, Wei Liu and Shu-Bin Qiao
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:37
  20. Whether cigarette smoking affects the heart post-myocardial infarction (MI) in a sex-dependent way remains controversial. Using a mouse model, we investigated cardiac remodeling under the influence of acute ci...

    Authors: Abdullah Kaplan, Emna Abidi, Reine Diab, Rana Ghali, Hiam Al-Awassi, George W. Booz and Fouad A. Zouein
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:36
  21. We determined the effect of fetal sex on birth/placental weight and umbilical vein and artery oxygen values with implications for placental efficiency and regulatory mechanisms underlying fetal–placental growt...

    Authors: Bryan S. Richardson, Akasham Rajagopaul, Barbra de Vrijer, Genevieve Eastabrook and Timothy R. H. Regnault
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:35
  22. Substance use continues to contribute to significant morbidity and mortality in the United States, for both women and men, more so than any other preventable health condition. To reduce the public health burde...

    Authors: Sherry A. McKee and Aimee L. McRae-Clark
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:34

    The Correction to this article has been published in Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:38

  23. The in-vivo regulation of vascular conductance (VC) is a continuous balance between endothelial vasodilation and sympathetic vasoconstriction. Although women may report blunted sympathetic vasoconstriction alo...

    Authors: Alessandro Gentilin, Paolo Moghetti, Antonio Cevese, Federico Schena and Cantor Tarperi
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:33
  24. Relaxin is a hormone which peaks during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, and a known collagenolytic promoter that has been shown to avidly bind tissues supporting the trapeziometacarpal (TMC) joint in ...

    Authors: Emily A. Parker, Alex M. Meyer, Ignacio Garcia Fleury and Joseph A. Buckwalter V
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:32
  25. In this systematic review, we highlight the differences between the male and female zebrafish brains to understand their differentiation and their use in studying sex-specific neurological diseases. Male and f...

    Authors: Gang Zhai, Jingyi Jia, Ceyhun Bereketoglu, Zhan Yin and Ajay Pradhan
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:31
  26. The sexual dimorphism represents one of the triggers of the metabolic disparities between the organisms, advising about wild implications in research or diagnostics contexts. Despite the mounting recognition o...

    Authors: Michele Costanzo, Marianna Caterino, Giovanni Sotgiu, Margherita Ruoppolo, Flavia Franconi and Ilaria Campesi
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:30
  27. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are an independent risk factor for chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes, stroke and ischemic heart disease. However, the effect of ACEs considering sex and race are ...

    Authors: Jacqueline R. Leachman, Kory Heier, Feitong Lei, Nermin Ahmed, Carolina Dalmasso, Meredith S. Duncan and Analia S. Loria
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:29
  28. Memory consolidation is a process required for the formation of long-term memories. The G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) neurokinin-3-receptor (Nk3R) and its interactions with sex hormones seem important for ...

    Authors: Antonio Florido, Estefanía Moreno, Enric I. Canela and Raül Andero
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:28
  29. Preeclampsia is a multifactorial cardiovascular disorder of pregnancy. If left untreated, it can lead to severe maternal and fetal outcomes. Hence, timely diagnosis and management of preeclampsia are extremely...

    Authors: Dinara Afrose, Hao Chen, Amali Ranashinghe, Chia-chi Liu, Annemarie Henessy, Philip M. Hansbro and Lana McClements
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:26
  30. Sex-based differences in appetite ratings have been observed previously. Ghrelin is the only known orexigenic peptide hormone. Sex differences in postprandial ghrelin responses may underlie different perceptio...

    Authors: Alessandro Leone, Ramona De Amicis, Marta Pellizzari, Simona Bertoli, Simone Ravella and Alberto Battezzati
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:25
  31. Impaired skeletal muscle growth in utero can result in reduced birth weight and pathogenesis of intrauterine growth restriction. Fetal and placental growth is influenced by many factors including genetic, epig...

    Authors: Siriluck Ponsuksili, Eduard Murani, Frieder Hadlich, Alvaro Perdomo-Sabogal, Nares Trakooljul, Michael Oster, Henry Reyer and Klaus Wimmers
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:24
  32. Epidemiologists need tools to measure effects of gender, a complex concept originating in the social sciences which is not easily operationalized in the discipline. Our aim is to clarify useful concepts, measures...

    Authors: Hélène Colineaux, Alexandra Soulier, Benoit Lepage and Michelle Kelly-Irving
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:23
  33. Previous studies on the relationship between the visceral adiposity index (VAI) and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) are limited. Therefore, this study explored the relationship between VAI and PAD in normal-...

    Authors: Yumeng Shi, Chao Yu, Lihua Hu, Minghui Li, Wei Zhou, Tao Wang, Lingjuan Zhu, Huihui Bao, Ping Li and Xiaoshu Cheng
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:22
  34. Whether the association of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) with dementia differs by sex remains unclear, and the role of socioeconomic, lifestyle, genetic, and medical factors in their association is unknown.

    Authors: Caiyun Dong, Chunmiao Zhou, Chunying Fu, Wenting Hao, Akihiko Ozaki, Nipun Shrestha, Salim S. Virani, Shiva Raj Mishra and Dongshan Zhu
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:21
  35. Sex and age associated differences in the tumor immune microenvironment of non-muscle invasive bladder (NMIBC) cancer and associated clinical outcomes are emerging indicators of treatment outcomes. The inciden...

    Authors: Ali Hamade, Deyang Li, Kathrin Tyryshkin, Minqi Xu, Gwenaelle Conseil, Priyanka Yolmo, Jake Hamilton, Stephen Chenard, D. Robert Siemens and Madhuri Koti
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:19
  36. Hypertension remains the leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Young females tend to be protected from hypertension compared with age-matched males. Although it has become increasingly clear that the...

    Authors: Elizabeth C. Snyder, Mahmoud Abdelbary, Ahmed El-Marakby and Jennifer C. Sullivan
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:17
  37. Prior research indicates that at least 35% of Alzheimer’s disease and related dementia risk may be amenable to prevention. Subjective cognitive decline is often the first indication of preclinical dementia, wi...

    Authors: Karen C. Schliep, William A. Barbeau, Kristine E. Lynch, Michelle K. Sorweid, Michael W. Varner, Norman L. Foster and Fares Qeadan
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:16
  38. Sex-based differences are crucial to consider in the formulation of a personalized treatment plan. We evaluated sex-based differences in adherence and remotely monitored biometric, psychometric, and biomarker ...

    Authors: Lili Barsky, William Speier, Garth Fuller, Susan Cheng, Andy Kim, Sandy Joung, Corey Arnold, Shivani Dhawan, Mayra Lopez, Mitra Mastali, Irene van den Broek, Janet Wei, Brennan Spiegel, Jennifer E. Van Eyk, C. Noel Bairey Merz and Chrisandra Shufelt
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:15
  39. Sex differences are essential factors in disease etiology and manifestation in many diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, and neurodegeneration [33]. The biological influence of sex differences (includ...

    Authors: Jennifer L. Fisher, Emma F. Jones, Victoria L. Flanary, Avery S. Williams, Elizabeth J. Ramsey and Brittany N. Lasseigne
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:13
  40. Women and men are suggested to have differences in vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), schizophrenia, eating disorders, i...

    Authors: Parnian Shobeiri, Amirali Kalantari, Antônio L. Teixeira and Nima Rezaei
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:12
  41. We assessed the sex differences in the association between blood pressure categories and glucose intolerance status with overall and ischemic stroke among Iranian adults.

    Authors: Azra Ramezankhani, Donna Parizadeh, Fereidoun Azizi and Farzad Hadaegh
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:10
  42. Neurogenesis in the hippocampus endures across the lifespan but is particularly prolific during the first postnatal week in the developing rodent brain. The majority of new born neurons are in the dentate gyru...

    Authors: S. L. Stockman, K. E. Kight, J. M. Bowers and M. M. McCarthy
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:9
  43. Beyond the degree of adiposity, the pattern of fat distribution has a profound influence on cardiometabolic risk. It is unclear if sex differences in body fat distribution can potentially explain any sex diffe...

    Authors: Christina Strack, Gundula Behrens, Sabine Sag, Margareta Mohr, Judith Zeller, Claas Lahmann, Ute Hubauer, Thomas Loew, Lars Maier, Marcus Fischer and Andrea Baessler
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:8
  44. Although biological males and females are equally likely to become infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), evidence has mounted that males experience higher severity and fat...

    Authors: Cosby G. Arnold, Anne Libby, Alexis Vest, Andrew Hopkinson and Andrew A. Monte
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:7