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  1. Smell impairment is one of the earliest features in Alzheimer’s (AD) and Parkinson’s diseases (PD). Due to sex differences exist in terms of smell and olfactory structures as well as in the prevalence and mani...

    Authors: Paz Cartas-Cejudo, Mercedes Lachén-Montes, Isidro Ferrer, Joaquín Fernández-Irigoyen and Enrique Santamaría
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2023 14:5
  2. Metabolic diseases, such as obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), are now a widespread pandemic in the developed world. These pathologies show sex differences in their development and p...

    Authors: Jose Antonio Santos-Marcos, Marina Mora-Ortiz, Manuel Tena-Sempere, Jose Lopez-Miranda and Antonio Camargo
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2023 14:4
  3. Asthma is a chronic airway condition that occurs more often in women than men during reproductive years. Population studies have collectively shown that long-term use of oral contraceptives decreased the onset...

    Authors: Kristi J. Warren, Cassandra Deering-Rice, Tom Huecksteadt, Shubhanshi Trivedi, Alessandro Venosa, Christopher Reilly, Karl Sanders, Frederic Clayton, Todd A. Wyatt, Jill A. Poole, Nicola M. Heller, Daniel Leung and Robert Paine III
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2023 14:2
  4. GnRH agonists have been used to halt the development of puberty in children with precocious puberty since the 1980s. Recently, drugs like Lupron Depot® (leuprolide acetate), have been used to suppress pubertal pr...

    Authors: Fay A. Guarraci, Layla Avendano, Megan Kelly, Cleriza Estoesta, Bernard Sencherey, Hannah S. Valdivia, Amanda Gale, Lily Yepez, Jasmine B. Belfield, Kristen M. Carter, Natalie Williams and Andrea C. Gore
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2023 14:1
  5. Pregnancy complications vary based on the fetus’s genetic sex, which may, in part, be modulated by the placenta. Furthermore, developmental differences early in life can have lifelong health outcomes. Yet, sex...

    Authors: Kimberly C. Olney, Seema B. Plaisier, Tanya N. Phung, Michelle Silasi, Lauren Perley, Jane O’Bryan, Lucia Ramirez, Harvey J. Kliman and Melissa A. Wilson
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:74
  6. Monopterus albus is a hermaphroditic and economically farmed fish that undergoes sex reversal from ovary to testis via ovotestis during gonadal development. The epigenetic changes that are associated with gonadal...

    Authors: Qiaomu Hu, Zitong Lian, Xueping Xia, Haifeng Tian and Zhong Li
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:73
  7. Accumulating evidence suggests a close relationship between metabolic disturbance and increased arterial stiffness. However, whether there is an association between pulse pressure (PP) and diabetes and how thi...

    Authors: Sheng Jia, Xinyue Wang, Qing Yao and Jian Gao
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:72
  8. Accumulating evidence suggest the existence of sex-related differences in the pathogenesis of aortic stenosis (AS) with inflammation, oxidative stress, fibrosis and calcification being over-represented in men....

    Authors: Eva Jover, Lara Matilla, Ernesto Martín-Núñez, Mattie Garaikoetxea, Adela Navarro, Amaya Fernández-Celis, Alicia Gainza, Vanessa Arrieta, Amaia García-Peña, Virginia Álvarez, Rafael Sádaba, Frederic Jaisser and Natalia López-Andrés
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:71
  9. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) confers high morbidity and mortality, with a death rate reaching 40%. Pre-clinical and clinical studies have cited sex-specific sex hormones as a critical contributor...

    Authors: Sultan Almuntashiri, Timothy W. Jones, Xiaoyun Wang, Andrea Sikora and Duo Zhang
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:70
  10. Gonadal development is driven by a complex genetic cascade in vertebrates. However, related information remains limited in molluscs owing to the long generation time and the difficulty in maintaining whole lif...

    Authors: Yajuan Li, Liangjie Liu, Lijing Zhang, Huilan Wei, Shaoxuan Wu, Tian Liu, Ya Shu, Yaxin Yang, Zujing Yang, Shi Wang, Zhenmin Bao and Lingling Zhang
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:69
  11. In recent decades, increasing longevity (among other factors) has fostered a rise in Parkinson's disease incidence. Although not exhaustively studied in this devastating disease, the impact of sex represents a...

    Authors: Adolfo López-Cerdán, Zoraida Andreu, Marta R. Hidalgo, Rubén Grillo-Risco, José Francisco Català-Senent, Irene Soler-Sáez, Almudena Neva-Alejo, Fernando Gordillo, María de la Iglesia-Vayá and Francisco García-García
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:68
  12. Dysregulation in the prefrontal cortex underlies a variety of psychiatric illnesses, including substance use disorder, depression, and anxiety. Despite the established sex differences in prevalence and present...

    Authors: Melissa C. Knouse, Anna G. McGrath, Andre U. Deutschmann, Matthew T. Rich, Lia J. Zallar, Anjali M. Rajadhyaksha and Lisa A. Briand
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:66
  13. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) plays an important role in obesity-associated insulin sensitivity. We have also previously reported that RAGE deficiency improved insulin resistance in o...

    Authors: Zuoqin Du, Jiaqi Wu, Ziqian Feng, Xiaoyu Ma, Tao Zhang, Xin Shu, Jin Xu, Liqun Wang, Mao Luo and Jianbo Wu
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:65
  14. Despite the extensive scientific evidence accumulating on the epidemiological risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), evidence exploring sex- and age-related differences remains insufficien...

    Authors: Sergio Fresneda, Manuela Abbate, Carla Busquets-Cortés, Arturo López-González, Pilar Fuster-Parra, Miquel Bennasar-Veny and Aina M. Yáñez
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:64
  15. Biological sex impacts susceptibility and presentation of cardiovascular disease, which remains the leading cause of death for both sexes. To reduce cardiovascular disease risk, statin drugs are commonly presc...

    Authors: Carrie B. Wiese, Zoey W. Agle, Peixiang Zhang and Karen Reue
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:63
  16. Ovarian hormone fluctuations over the rodent estrous cycle and the human menstrual cycle are known to significantly impact brain physiology and disease risk, yet this variable is largely ignored in preclinical...

    Authors: Devin Rocks, Heining Cham and Marija Kundakovic
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:62
  17. Bile acids are known to be genotoxic and contribute to colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the link between CRC tumor bile acids to tumor location, patient sex, microbiome, immune-regulatory cells, and prognosis...

    Authors: Yuping Cai, Xinyi Shen, Lingeng Lu, Hong Yan, Huang Huang, Patricia Gaule, Engjel Muca, Casey M. Theriot, Zahra Rattray, Nicholas J. W. Rattray, Jun Lu, Nita Ahuja, Yawei Zhang, Philip B. Paty, Sajid A. Khan and Caroline H. Johnson
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:61
  18. Progesterone administration has therapeutic effects in tobacco use disorder (TUD), with females benefiting more than males. Conversion of progesterone to the neurosteroid allopregnanolone is hypothesized to pa...

    Authors: Andrew M. Novick, Korrina A. Duffy, Rachel L. Johnson, Mary D. Sammel, Wen Cao, Andrew A. Strasser, Mehmet Sofuoglu, Alexandra Kuzma, James Loughead, A. Leslie Morrow and C. Neill Epperson
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:60
  19. Muscle-specific androgen receptor (AR) overexpression (HSAAR transgene) in sedentary male rats results in reduced adiposity, increased mitochondrial enzyme activity, and selective increase in Type 2b myofiber ...

    Authors: Sabrina Tzivia Barsky and Douglas Ashley Monks
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:59
  20. The pituitary gland regulates essential physiological processes such as growth, pubertal onset, stress response, metabolism, reproduction, and lactation. While sex biases in these functions and hormone product...

    Authors: Huayun Hou, Cadia Chan, Kyoko E. Yuki, Dustin Sokolowski, Anna Roy, Rihao Qu, Liis Uusküla-Reimand, Mariela Faykoo-Martinez, Matt Hudson, Christina Corre, Anna Goldenberg, Zhaolei Zhang, Mark R. Palmert and Michael D. Wilson
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:57
  21. Osteocytic microRNA21 (miR21) removal alters cytokine production and bone mass by modulating osteoclast and osteoblast differentiation and activity. Removing osteocytic miR21 increases osteoclast/osteoblast nu...

    Authors: Alyson L. Essex, Padmini Deosthale, Joshua R. Huot, Hannah M. Davis, Nicholas Momeni, Andrea Bonetto and Lilian I. Plotkin
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:56
  22. Research on sex ratios of Lewy body dementia is controversial, established in small samples, and rarely focused on prodromal stage. The objective is to investigate the clinical sex ratios (men/women) and their...

    Authors: Jinghuan Gan, Zhichao Chen, Zhihong Shi, Xudong Li, Shuai Liu, Yiming Liu, Hongcan Zhu, Lu Shen, Guili Zhang, Yong You, Qihao Guo, Nan Zhang, Yang Lv, Baozhi Gang, Junliang Yuan and Yong Ji
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:55
  23. Hypoxia is associated with pregnancy complications, such as preeclampsia, placental abruption, and gestational sleep apnea. Hypoxic insults during gestation can impact the brain maturation of cortical and subc...

    Authors: E. Nicole Wilson, Steve Mabry, Jessica L. Bradshaw, Jennifer J. Gardner, Nataliya Rybalchenko, Rachel Engelland, Oluwadarasimi Fadeyibi, Oluwatobiloba Osikoya, Spencer C. Cushen, Styliani Goulopoulou and Rebecca L. Cunningham
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:54
  24. Studies on the association between urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (uACR) and diabetes are limited. We aimed to examine the association between uACR and diabetes among adults in the United States, with par...

    Authors: Yumeng Shi, Huan Hu, Zuxiang Wu, Ji Wu, Zhiqiang Chen and Ping Li
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:53
  25. The association between habitual glucosamine use and incident gout has not been examined in previous studies. We aimed to evaluate the association of habitual use of glucosamine with the risk of gout in genera...

    Authors: Mengyi Liu, Ziliang Ye, Yanjun Zhang, Sisi Yang, Qimeng Wu, Chun Zhou, Panpan He, Yuanyuan Zhang, Xiaoqin Gan and Xianhui Qin
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:52
  26. Habituation to repeated stress refers to a progressive reduction in the stress response following multiple exposures to the same, predictable stressor. We previously demonstrated that the posterior division of...

    Authors: Brian F. Corbett, Kimberly Urban, Sandra Luz, Jason Yan, Jay Arner and Seema Bhatnagar
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:51
  27. The fetal placenta is a source of hormones and immune factors that play a vital role in maintaining pregnancy and facilitating fetal growth. Cells in this extraembryonic compartment match the chromosomal sex o...

    Authors: Amy E. Braun, Olivia R. Mitchel, Tania L. Gonzalez, Tianyanxin Sun, Amy E. Flowers, Margareta D. Pisarska and Virginia D. Winn
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:50
  28. For more than 150 years, research studies have documented greater variability across males than across females (“greater male variability”—GMV) over a broad range of behavioral and morphological measures. In p...

    Authors: Van Summers
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:49
  29. Offspring born to preeclamptic mothers are prone to obesity, diabetes and hypertension in later life, but still, studies investigating the underlying mechanism are limited. Here, we aimed to investigate the im...

    Authors: Mohammadmehdi Hassanzadeh-Taheri, Mahtab Mohammadifard, Zahra Erfanian and Mehran Hosseini
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:48
  30. Differences in adolescents and adults by sex in blood levels of leptin and adiposity have been described; however, it is not yet clear if these differences arise from the prepubertal stage in subjects with a n...

    Authors: Jose Guillermo Ortega-Avila, Harry García-Muñoz, Alejandro Segura Ordoñez and Blanca C. Salazar Contreras
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:47

    The Correction to this article has been published in Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:67

  31. The aim of this study was to analyze the association of physical activity and its intensity with arterial stiffness and vascular aging and differences by sex in a Spanish population with intermediate cardiovas...

    Authors: Leticia Gómez-Sánchez, Emiliano Rodríguez-Sánchez, Rafel Ramos, Ruth Marti, Marta Gómez-Sánchez, Cristina Lugones-Sánchez, Olaya Tamayo-Morales, Susana Gonzalez Sánchez, Fernando Rigo, Luis García-Ortiz and Manuel A. Gómez-Marcos
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:46
  32. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), characterized by androgen excess and ovulatory dysfunction, is associated with a high prevalence of obesity and insulin resistance (IR) in women. We demonstrated that sodium–g...

    Authors: Jacob E. Pruett, Steven J. Everman, Ngoc H. Hoang, Faridah Salau, Lucy C. Taylor, Kristin S. Edwards, Jonathan P. Hosler, Alexandra M. Huffman, Damian G. Romero and Licy L. Yanes Cardozo
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:45
  33. Tendinopathies are common overuse disorders that arise both in athletes and the general population. Available tendon treatments are used both for women and men without distinction. However, the existence of a ...

    Authors: Camilla Mondini Trissino da Lodi, Manuela Salerno, Giulia Merli, Pieter Brama, Florien Jenner and Giuseppe Filardo
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:44
  34. The presence, magnitude, and significance of sex differences in the human brain are hotly debated topics in the scientific community and popular media. This debate is largely fueled by studies containing stron...

    Authors: Alex R. DeCasien, Elisa Guma, Siyuan Liu and Armin Raznahan
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:43
  35. Females are more likely to present with anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared to males, which are associated with disrupted hippocampal integrity. Sex differences in the stru...

    Authors: Shunya Yagi, Amanda Lee, Nadine Truter and Liisa A. M. Galea
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:42
  36. Despite recent work demonstrating that female rodents and humans do not show greater variance in behavior and physiology than males due to ovulatory cycles, many researchers still default to using males in the...

    Authors: Benjamin Smarr and Lance J. Kriegsfeld
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:41
  37. KDM6A is a demethylase encoded by a gene with female-biased expression due to escape from X inactivation. Its main role is to facilitate gene expression through removal of the repressive H3K27me3 mark, with ev...

    Authors: Wenxiu Ma, He Fang, Nicolas Pease, Galina N. Filippova, Christine M. Disteche and Joel B. Berletch
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:40
  38. In utero exposure to nicotine, largely assessed by smoking, is a risk factor for impaired offspring health, while potential effects of non-combustible nicotine use such as snus (oral moist tobacco), are less w...

    Authors: Birgitte Kordt Sundet, Ina Kreyberg, Anne Cathrine Staff, Karin Cecilie Lødrup Carlsen, Karen Eline Stensby Bains, Jens Petter Berg, Berit Granum, Guttorm Haugen, Gunilla Hedlin, Christine Monceyron Jonassen, Live Solveig Nordhagen, Björn Nordlund, Eva Maria Rehbinder, Knut Rudi, Corina Silvia Rueegg, Katrine Dønvold Sjøborg…
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:39
  39. Alcohol septal ablation (ASA) has been proven to reverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). However, there are no studies on the effect of sex on LV remodeling after ASA. We...

    Authors: You-Zhou Chen, Xing-Shan Zhao, Jian-Song Yuan, Yan Zhang, Wei Liu and Shu-Bin Qiao
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:37
  40. Whether cigarette smoking affects the heart post-myocardial infarction (MI) in a sex-dependent way remains controversial. Using a mouse model, we investigated cardiac remodeling under the influence of acute ci...

    Authors: Abdullah Kaplan, Emna Abidi, Reine Diab, Rana Ghali, Hiam Al-Awassi, George W. Booz and Fouad A. Zouein
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:36
  41. We determined the effect of fetal sex on birth/placental weight and umbilical vein and artery oxygen values with implications for placental efficiency and regulatory mechanisms underlying fetal–placental growt...

    Authors: Bryan S. Richardson, Akasham Rajagopaul, Barbra de Vrijer, Genevieve Eastabrook and Timothy R. H. Regnault
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:35
  42. Substance use continues to contribute to significant morbidity and mortality in the United States, for both women and men, more so than any other preventable health condition. To reduce the public health burde...

    Authors: Sherry A. McKee and Aimee L. McRae-Clark
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:34

    The Correction to this article has been published in Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:38

  43. The in-vivo regulation of vascular conductance (VC) is a continuous balance between endothelial vasodilation and sympathetic vasoconstriction. Although women may report blunted sympathetic vasoconstriction alo...

    Authors: Alessandro Gentilin, Paolo Moghetti, Antonio Cevese, Federico Schena and Cantor Tarperi
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:33
  44. Relaxin is a hormone which peaks during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, and a known collagenolytic promoter that has been shown to avidly bind tissues supporting the trapeziometacarpal (TMC) joint in ...

    Authors: Emily A. Parker, Alex M. Meyer, Ignacio Garcia Fleury and Joseph A. Buckwalter V
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:32
  45. In this systematic review, we highlight the differences between the male and female zebrafish brains to understand their differentiation and their use in studying sex-specific neurological diseases. Male and f...

    Authors: Gang Zhai, Jingyi Jia, Ceyhun Bereketoglu, Zhan Yin and Ajay Pradhan
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2022 13:31