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  1. Content type: Research

    Sex differences in outcomes after small artery occlusion (SAO) stroke have not been well described, particularly in a Chinese population. We aimed to assess sex differences in outcomes and related risk factors...

    Authors: Qing Qiao, Yan Hong, Wenjuan Zhao, Guanen Zhou, Qian Liu, Xianjia Ning, Jinghua Wang and Zhongping An

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2018 9:35

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  2. Content type: Research

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, and it affects more women than men. Mitochondrial dysfunction (MD) plays a key role in AD, and it is detectable at an early stage of the degenerati...

    Authors: C. Silaidos, U. Pilatus, R. Grewal, S. Matura, B. Lienerth, J. Pantel and G. P. Eckert

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2018 9:34

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  3. Content type: Review

    It is well known that women live longer than men. This gap is observed in most human populations and can even reach 10–15 years. In addition, most of the known super centenarians (i.e., humans who lived for > ...

    Authors: Gabriel A.B. Marais, Jean-Michel Gaillard, Cristina Vieira, Ingrid Plotton, Damien Sanlaville, François Gueyffier and Jean-Francois Lemaitre

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2018 9:33

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  4. Content type: Research

    Amphiregulin (AREG) is an epidermal growth factor that is a significant mediator of tissue repair at mucosal sites, including in the lungs during influenza A virus (IAV) infection. Previous research illustrate...

    Authors: Meghan S. Vermillion, Rebecca L. Ursin, Denise I. T. Kuok, Landon G. vom Steeg, Nicholas Wohlgemuth, Olivia J. Hall, Ashley L. Fink, Eric Sasse, Andrew Nelson, Roland Ndeh, Sharon McGrath-Morrow, Wayne Mitzner, Michael C. W. Chan, Andrew Pekosz and Sabra L. Klein

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2018 9:24

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  5. Content type: Research

    Our previous study revealed that adult female rats respond differently to trauma than adult males, recapitulating sex differences in symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) exhibited by women and men...

    Authors: Apryl E. Pooley, Rebecca C. Benjamin, Susheela Sreedhar, Andrew L. Eagle, Alfred J. Robison, Michelle S. Mazei-Robison, S. Marc Breedlove and Cynthia L. Jordan

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2018 9:32

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  6. Content type: Research

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affects men and women differently. Not only are women twice as likely as men to develop PTSD, they experience different symptoms and comorbidities associated with PTSD. Ye...

    Authors: Apryl E. Pooley, Rebecca C. Benjamin, Susheela Sreedhar, Andrew L. Eagle, Alfred J. Robison, Michelle S. Mazei-Robison, S. Marc Breedlove and Cynthia L. Jordan

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2018 9:31

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  7. Content type: Research

    Osseointegration is dependent on the implant surface, surrounding bone quality, and the systemic host environment, which can differ in male and female patients. Titanium (Ti) implants with microstructured surf...

    Authors: Michael B. Berger, David J. Cohen, Rene Olivares-Navarrete, Joseph K. Williams, David L. Cochran, Barbara D. Boyan and Zvi Schwartz

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2018 9:30

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  8. Content type: Research

    While performing a unilateral muscle contraction, electrical muscle activity also arises in the contralateral homologous muscle, muscle group, or limb. When the muscle contraction induces muscle fatigue, femal...

    Authors: Aude-Clémence M. Doix, Felix Wachholz, Natalie Marterer, Lorenz Immler, Kathrin Insam and Peter A. Federolf

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2018 9:29

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  9. Content type: Research

    Body composition differs between men and women, with women having proportionally more fat mass and men more muscle mass. Although men and women are both susceptible to obesity, health consequences differ betwe...

    Authors: Melanie Schorr, Laura E. Dichtel, Anu V. Gerweck, Ruben D. Valera, Martin Torriani, Karen K. Miller and Miriam A. Bredella

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2018 9:28

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  10. Content type: Review

    Sex differences are important epidemiological factors that impact in the frequency and severity of infectious diseases. A clear sexual dimorphism in bacterial infections has been reported in both humans and an...

    Authors: Edgar Ricardo Vázquez-Martínez, Elizabeth García-Gómez, Ignacio Camacho-Arroyo and Bertha González-Pedrajo

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2018 9:27

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  11. Content type: Research

    A dysbiosis in the intestinal microbiome plays a role in the pathogenesis of several immunological diseases. These diseases often show a sex bias, suggesting sex differences in immune responses and in the inte...

    Authors: Marlies Elderman, Floor Hugenholtz, Clara Belzer, Mark Boekschoten, Adriaan van Beek, Bart de Haan, Huub Savelkoul, Paul de Vos and Marijke Faas

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2018 9:26

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  12. Content type: Research

    Doxorubicin (DOX), an anthracycline therapeutic, is widely used to treat a variety of cancer types and known to induce cardiomyopathy in a time and dose-dependent manner. Postmenopausal and hypertensive female...

    Authors: Kaytee L. Pokrzywinski, Thomas G. Biel, Elliot T. Rosen, Julia L. Bonanno, Baikuntha Aryal, Francesca Mascia, Delaram Moshkelani, Steven Mog and V. Ashutosh Rao

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2018 9:25

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  13. Content type: Review

    This study aims to determine if there is sex bias in basic and preclinical research on age-related hearing loss for the 10-year period of 2006–2015, prior to the NIH mandate of including sex as a biological va...

    Authors: Dillan F. Villavisanis, Katrina M. Schrode and Amanda M. Lauer

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2018 9:23

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  14. Content type: Research

    Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug. In the general population, its use has been linked to a heightened propensity for suicidal behavior (SB). We hypothesize that this association varies in patient...

    Authors: Leen Naji, Tea Rosic, Brittany Dennis, Meha Bhatt, Nitika Sanger, Jackie Hudson, Natalia Mouravska, Lehana Thabane and Zainab Samaan

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2018 9:22

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  15. Content type: Research

    There is a complex interaction between female and male sex hormones and the risk of epilepsy. Whether prenatal exposure to higher levels of sex hormones affects the development of epilepsy in childhood or late...

    Authors: Yanyan Mao, Linda Juel Ahrenfeldt, Kaare Christensen, Chunsen Wu, Jakob Christensen, Jørn Olsen and Yuelian Sun

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2018 9:21

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  16. Content type: Research

    Research into energy balance and growth has infrequently considered genetic sex, yet there is sexual dimorphism for growth across the animal kingdom. We test the hypothesis that in the chicken, there is a sex ...

    Authors: S. D. Caughey, P. W. Wilson, N. Mukhtar, S. Brocklehurst, A. Reid, R. B. D’Eath, T. Boswell and I. C. Dunn

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2018 9:20

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  17. Content type: Review

    Differences in cardiovascular diseases are evident in men and women throughout life and are mainly attributed to the presence of sex hormones and chromosomes. Epigenetic mechanisms drive the regulation of the ...

    Authors: Robin J. G. Hartman, Sarah E. Huisman and Hester M. den Ruijter

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2018 9:19

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  18. Content type: Research

    Sex differences in the incidence and prognosis of respiratory diseases have been reported. Studies have shown that women are at increased risk of adverse health outcomes from air pollution than men, but sex-sp...

    Authors: Nathalie Fuentes, Arpan Roy, Vikas Mishra, Noe Cabello and Patricia Silveyra

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2018 9:18

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  19. Content type: Research

    Muscle fatigue induced by repetitive movements contributes to the development of musculoskeletal disorders. Men and women respond differently to muscle fatigue during isometric single-joint efforts, but sex di...

    Authors: Jason Bouffard, Chen Yang, Mickael Begon and Julie Côté

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2018 9:17

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  20. Content type: Review

    Registry data worldwide indicate an overall female predominance for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) of 2–4 over men. Genetic predisposition accounts for only 1–5% of PAH cases, while autoimmune diseases ...

    Authors: Kyle A. Batton, Christopher O. Austin, Katelyn A. Bruno, Charles D. Burger, Brian P. Shapiro and DeLisa Fairweather

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2018 9:15

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  21. Content type: Research

    Sexual dimorphism in placental size and function has been described. Whether this influences the clinically important umbilical artery (UA) waveform remains controversial, although a few cross-sectional studie...

    Authors: Christian Widnes, Kari Flo, Tom Wilsgaard, Torvid Kiserud and Ganesh Acharya

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2018 9:16

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  22. Content type: Research

    Over 100 mammalian G protein-coupled receptors are yet to be matched with endogenous ligands; these so-called orphans are prospective drug targets for the treatment of disease. GPR37L1 is one such orphan, abun...

    Authors: James L. J. Coleman, Margaret A. Mouat, Jianxin Wu, Nikola Jancovski, Jaspreet K. Bassi, Andrea Y. Chan, David T. Humphreys, Nadine Mrad, Ze-Yan Yu, Tony Ngo, Siiri Iismaa, Cristobal G. dos Remedios, Michael P. Feneley, Andrew M. Allen, Robert M. Graham and Nicola J. Smith

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2018 9:14

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  23. Content type: Research

    Sexual parasites offer unique insights into the reproduction of unisexual and sexual populations. Because unisexuality is almost exclusively linked to the female sex, most studies addressed host-parasite dynam...

    Authors: Marie Doležálková-Kaštánková, Nicolas B. M. Pruvost, Jörg Plötner, Heinz-Ulrich Reyer, Karel Janko and Lukáš Choleva

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2018 9:13

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  24. Content type: Research

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is the most prevalent form of acquired hearing loss and affects about 40 million US adults. Among the suggested therapeutics tested in rodents, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid...

    Authors: Béatrice Milon, Sunayana Mitra, Yang Song, Zachary Margulies, Ryan Casserly, Virginia Drake, Jessica A. Mong, Didier A. Depireux and Ronna Hertzano

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2018 9:12

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  25. Content type: Research

    Differences in stroke care and health outcomes between men and women are debated. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between patients’ sex and post-stroke health outcomes and received ...

    Authors: Carl Willers, Ingrid Lekander, Elisabeth Ekstrand, Mikael Lilja, Hélène Pessah-Rasmussen, Katharina S. Sunnerhagen and Mia von Euler

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2018 9:11

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  26. Content type: Research

    Sexual dimorphism in DNA methylation levels is a recurrent epigenetic feature in different human cell types and has been implicated in predisposition to disease, such as psychiatric and autoimmune disorders. T...

    Authors: Bianca Ho, Keelin Greenlaw, Abeer Al Tuwaijri, Sanny Moussette, Francisco Martínez, Elisa Giorgio, Alfredo Brusco, Giovanni Battista Ferrero, Natália D. Linhares, Eugênia R. Valadares, Marta Svartman, Vera M. Kalscheuer, Germán Rodríguez Criado, Catherine Laprise, Celia M. T. Greenwood and Anna K. Naumova

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2018 9:10

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  27. Content type: Research

    Incidence and prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) differ between sexes, and women experience CVD later than men. Changes in fibrin clot lysability are associated with CVD, and the present study addresse...

    Authors: Ramshanker Ramanathan, Niels Peter R. Sand, Johannes J. Sidelmann, Bjarne L. Nørgaard and Jørgen B. Gram

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2018 9:9

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  28. Content type: Research

    Disorders of sex development (DSD) have an estimated frequency of 0.5% of live births encompassing a variety of urogenital anomalies ranging from mild hypospadias to a discrepancy between sex chromosomes and e...

    Authors: Hayk Barseghyan, Aleisha Symon, Mariam Zadikyan, Miguel Almalvez, Eva E. Segura, Ascia Eskin, Matthew S. Bramble, Valerie A. Arboleda, Ruth Baxter, Stanley F. Nelson, Emmanuèle C. Délot, Vincent Harley and Eric Vilain

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2018 9:8

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  29. Content type: Research

    Gut dysbiosis is observed in several neuropsychiatric disorders exhibiting increases in anxiety behavior, and recent work suggests links between gut inflammation and such disorders. One source of this inflamma...

    Authors: Christopher T. Fields, Benoit Chassaing, Alexandra Castillo-Ruiz, Remus Osan, Andrew T. Gewirtz and Geert J. de Vries

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2018 9:7

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  30. Content type: Research

    Disruption of axonal transport plays a pivotal role in diabetic neuropathy. A sex-dimorphism exists in the incidence and symptomatology of diabetic neuropathy; however, no studies so far have addressed sex dif...

    Authors: Marzia Pesaresi, Silvia Giatti, Roberto Spezzano, Simone Romano, Silvia Diviccaro, Tiziana Borsello, Nico Mitro, Donatella Caruso, Luis Miguel Garcia-Segura and Roberto Cosimo Melcangi

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2018 9:6

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  31. Content type: Correction

    Unfortunately, after publication of this article [1], two errors were noticed. The names of Linnéa Karlsson Lind and Karin Schenck-Gustafsson were formatted incorrectly, attributing incorrect elements to the G...

    Authors: Linnéa Karlsson Lind, Mia von Euler, Seher Korkmaz and Karin Schenck-Gustafsson

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2018 9:5

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    The original article was published in Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:32

  32. Content type: Research

    Development of the placenta during the late first trimester is critical to ensure normal growth and development of the fetus. Developmental differences in this window such as sex-specific variation are implica...

    Authors: Tania L. Gonzalez, Tianyanxin Sun, Alexander F. Koeppel, Bora Lee, Erica T. Wang, Charles R. Farber, Stephen S. Rich, Lauren W. Sundheimer, Rae A. Buttle, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Jerome I. Rotter, Stephen D. Turner, John Williams III, Mark O. Goodarzi and Margareta D. Pisarska

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2018 9:4

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  33. Content type: Research

    Chronic pain conditions are more prevalent in women, but most preclinical studies into mechanisms of pain generation are performed using male animals. Furthermore, whereas group III and IV nociceptive muscle a...

    Authors: Jessica L. Ross, Luis F. Queme, Jordan E. Lamb, Kathryn J. Green and Michael P. Jankowski

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2018 9:2

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  34. Content type: Research

    Helicobacter pylori causes peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer only in a subset of infected persons. Sex differences were shown in results of urea breath test (UBT), a commonly used test for the diagnosis of

    Authors: Ido Eisdorfer, Varda Shalev, Sophy Goren, Gabriel Chodick and Khitam Muhsen

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2018 9:1

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  35. Content type: Research

    Sex and age play a role in the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction (TD), but their interrelationship for manifestation of hyper- and hypothyroidism is still not well understood. Using a murine model, we asked wh...

    Authors: Helena Rakov, Kathrin Engels, Georg Sebastian Hönes, Klaudia Brix, Josef Köhrle, Lars Christian Moeller, Denise Zwanziger and Dagmar Führer

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:38

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  36. Content type: Research

    Human innate host defense molecules, surfactant protein A1 (SP-A1), and SP-A2 differentially affect the function and proteome of the alveolar macrophage (AM). We hypothesized that SP-A genes differentially reg...

    Authors: George T. Noutsios, Nithyananda Thorenoor, Xuesheng Zhang, David S. Phelps, Todd M. Umstead, Faryal Durrani and Joanna Floros

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:37

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  37. Content type: Research

    Stress is a recognized risk factor for mood and anxiety disorders that occur more often in women than men. Prefrontal brain regions mediate stress coping, cognitive control, and emotion. Here, we investigate s...

    Authors: Alex G. Lee, Megan Hagenauer, Devin Absher, Kathleen E. Morrison, Tracy L. Bale, Richard M. Myers, Stanley J. Watson, Huda Akil, Alan F. Schatzberg and David M. Lyons

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:36

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  38. Content type: Research

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS) are autoimmune disorders characterized by autoantibodies, dysregulated B cells, and notably high female-to-male incidence ratios. Genome-...

    Authors: Magdalena Lindén, Jorge I. Ramírez Sepúlveda, Tojo James, Gudny Ella Thorlacius, Susanna Brauner, David Gómez-Cabrero, Tomas Olsson, Ingrid Kockum and Marie Wahren-Herlenius

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:34

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  39. Content type: Review

    Epidemiologic studies have previously suggested that premenopausal females have reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) when compared to age-matched males, and the incidence and severity of CVD incre...

    Authors: Andrea Iorga, Christine M. Cunningham, Shayan Moazeni, Gregoire Ruffenach, Soban Umar and Mansoureh Eghbali

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:33

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  40. Content type: Letter to the Editor

    Investigating fetal development in mice necessitates the determination of fetal sex. However, whilst the sex of adult and juvenile mice can be readily distinguished from anogenital distance, the sex of fetal a...

    Authors: Simon James Tunster

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:31

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  41. Content type: Research

    17 Alpha-estradiol (17 α-E2) is a natural, non-feminizing stereoisomer of 17 beta-estradiol (17 β-E2). Whereas much is known about the physiological effects of 17 β-E2, much less is known about 17 α-E2. For ex...

    Authors: Roberta S. Santos, Luciana A. de Fatima, Aaron P. Frank, Everardo M. Carneiro and Deborah J. Clegg

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:30

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  42. Content type: Research

    Sex-related differences in human thermal and pain sensitivity are the subject of controversial discussion. The goal of this study in a large number of subjects was to investigate sex differences in thermal and...

    Authors: Beate Averbeck, Lena Seitz, Florian P. Kolb and Dieter F. Kutz

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:29

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  43. Content type: Research

    Pre-implantation embryos exhibit sexual dimorphisms in both primates and rodents. To determine whether these differences reflected sex-biased expression patterns, we generated transcriptome profiles for six 40...

    Authors: Rachael J. Werner, Bryant M. Schultz, Jacklyn M. Huhn, Jaroslav Jelinek, Jozef Madzo and Nora Engel

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:28

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  44. Content type: Research

    Sexual differentiation of the male brain, and specifically the stress circuitry in the hypothalamus, is primarily driven by estrogen exposure during the perinatal period. Surprisingly, this single hormone prom...

    Authors: Christopher P. Morgan and Tracy L. Bale

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:27

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  45. Content type: Research

    Women have a higher risk of lethal arrhythmias than men in long QT syndrome type 2 (LQTS2), but the mechanisms remain uncertain due to the limited availability of healthy control human tissue. We have previous...

    Authors: Rita Papp, Glenna C. L. Bett, Agnieszka Lis, Randall L. Rasmusson, István Baczkó, András Varró and Guy Salama

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:26

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  46. Content type: Research

    Despite men being less prone to develop autoimmune diseases, male sex has been associated with a more severe disease course in several systemic autoimmune diseases. In the present study, we aimed to investigat...

    Authors: Jorge I. Ramírez Sepúlveda, Marika Kvarnström, Per Eriksson, Thomas Mandl, Katrine Brække Norheim, Svein Joar Johnsen, Daniel Hammenfors, Malin V. Jonsson, Kathrine Skarstein, Johan G. Brun, Lars Rönnblom, Helena Forsblad-d’Elia, Sara Magnusson Bucher, Eva Baecklund, Elke Theander, Roald Omdal…

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:25

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  47. Content type: Research

    The thermoneutral zone (TNZ) is a species-specific range of ambient temperature (T a), at which mammals can maintain a constant body temperature with the lowest metabolic rate. The TNZ ...

    Authors: Kasiphak Kaikaew, Jacobie Steenbergen, Axel P. N. Themmen, Jenny A. Visser and Aldo Grefhorst

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:24

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