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  1. Sexual dimorphism significantly influences cancer incidence and prognosis. Notably, females exhibit a lower risk and favorable prognosis for non-reproductive cancers compared to males, a pattern observable bey...

    Authors: Yair Rodríguez-Santiago, Claudia Angelica Garay-Canales, Karen Elizabeth Nava-Castro and Jorge Morales-Montor
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2024 15:48
  2. Sex hormones and sex chromosomes play a vital role in cardiovascular disease. Testosterone plays a crucial role in men’s health. Lower testosterone level is associated with cardiovascular and cardiometabolic d...

    Authors: Anil Sakamuri, Bruna Visniauskas, Isabella Kilanowski-Doroh, Alexandra B. McNally, Ariane Imulinde, Anne Kamau, Divya Sengottaian, John McLachlan, Montserrat Anguera, Franck Mauvais-Jarvis, Sarah H. Lindsey and Benard O. Ogola
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2024 15:46
  3. Past research suggests that low testosterone levels relate to poorer cognitive function and higher Alzheimer’s disease (AD) risk; however, these findings are inconsistent and are mostly derived from male sampl...

    Authors: Melanie A. Dratva, Sarah J. Banks, Matthew S. Panizzon, Douglas Galasko and Erin E. Sundermann
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2024 15:45
  4. The outcomes of traumatic brain injury (TBI) exhibit variance contingent upon biological sex. Although female sex hormones exert neuroprotective effects, the administration of estrogen and progesterone has not...

    Authors: Chunyan Li, Erum Ajmal, Khaled Alok, Keren Powell, Steven Wadolowski, Willians Tambo, Justin Turpin, Ernest Barthélemy, Yousef Al-Abed and David LeDoux
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2024 15:44
  5. Metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease (MASLD) is defined by the presence of hepatic steatosis, detected on ultrasonography (US) imaging or histology, and at least one of criteria for Metabol...

    Authors: Lucilla Crudele, Carlo De Matteis, Fabio Novielli, Ersilia Di Buduo, Stefano Petruzzelli, Alessia De Giorgi, Gianfranco Antonica, Elsa Berardi and Antonio Moschetta
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2024 15:43
  6. Sex differences exist in the prevalence and clinical manifestation of several mental disorders, suggesting that sex-specific brain phenotypes may play key roles. Previous research used machine learning models ...

    Authors: Gloria Matte Bon, Dominik Kraft, Erika Comasco, Birgit Derntl and Tobias Kaufmann
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2024 15:42
  7. Differences in immune responses between women and men are leading to a strong sex bias in the incidence of autoimmune diseases that predominantly affect women, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). MS manifests in ...

    Authors: Ingo Winschel, Anne Willing, Jan Broder Engler, Mark Walkenhorst, Nina Meurs, Lars Binkle-Ladisch, Marcel S. Woo, Lena Kristina Pfeffer, Jana K. Sonner, Uwe Borgmeyer, Sven Hendrik Hagen, Benjamin Grünhagel, Janna M. Claussen, Marcus Altfeld and Manuel A. Friese
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2024 15:41
  8. Recent studies have shown that prenatal BPA exposure altered the transcriptome profiles of autism-related genes in the offspring’s hippocampus, disrupting hippocampal neuritogenesis and causing male-specific d...

    Authors: Songphon Kanlayaprasit, Thanit Saeliw, Surangrat Thongkorn, Pawinee Panjabud, Kasidit Kasitipradit, Pattanachat Lertpeerapan, Kwanjira Songsritaya, Wasana Yuwattana, Thanawin Jantheang, Depicha Jindatip, Valerie W. Hu, Takako Kikkawa, Noriko Osumi and Tewarit Sarachana
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2024 15:40
  9. Early life adversity impairs hippocampal development and function across diverse species. While initial evidence indicated potential variations between males and females, further research is required to valida...

    Authors: Rafiad Islam, Jordon D. White, Tanzil M. Arefin, Sameet Mehta, Xinran Liu, Baruh Polis, Lauryn Giuliano, Sahabuddin Ahmed, Christian Bowers, Jiangyang Zhang and Arie Kaffman
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2024 15:39
  10. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects 10–26% of adults in the United States with known sex differences in prevalence and severity. OSA is characterized by elevated inflammation, oxidative stress (OS), and cogn...

    Authors: Steve Mabry, Jessica L. Bradshaw, Jennifer J. Gardner, E. Nicole Wilson and Rebecca L. Cunningham
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2024 15:38
  11. Following years of pandemic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infections labelled Covid-19, long lasting impairment summarized as post-Covid syndrome (PCS) challenges worldwide healthcare. Patien...

    Authors: Alexander Kautzky, Stephan Nopp, Dietlinde Gattinger, Milos Petrovic, Martin Antlinger, Dustin Schomacker, Alexandra Kautzky-Willer and Ralf Harun Zwick
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2024 15:36
  12. Children with pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A2 (PAPP-A2) mutations resulting in low levels of bioactive insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) and progressive postnatal growth retardation have improved growth ...

    Authors: María del Mar Fernández-Arjona, Juan Antonio Navarro, Antonio Jesús López-Gambero, Marialuisa de Ceglia, Miguel Rodríguez, Leticia Rubio, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca, Vicente Barrios, Julie A. Chowen, Jesús Argente, Patricia Rivera and Juan Suárez
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2024 15:34
  13. Recent preclinical research exploring how neuropeptide transmitter systems regulate motivated behavior reveal the increasing importance of sex as a critical biological variable. Neuropeptide systems and their ...

    Authors: Isabel R. K. Kuebler, Mauricio Suárez and Ken T. Wakabayashi
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2024 15:33
  14. Recently implemented research policies requiring the inclusion of females and males have created an urgent need for effective training in how to account for sex, and in some cases gender, in biomedical studies.

    Authors: Annika Gompers, Madeline T. Olivier and Donna L. Maney
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2024 15:32
  15. Authors: Ryan T. McCallum, Rachel-Karson Thériault, Joshua D. Manduca, Isaac S. B. Russell, Angel M. Culmer, Janan Shoja Doost, Tami A. Martino and Melissa L. Perreault
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2024 15:31

    The original article was published in Biology of Sex Differences 2024 15:16

  16. Following in vitro ischemia, the nerve growth factor receptor TrkB is activated in the presence of the TrkB agonist 7,8-DHF only in female and not in male cultured hippocampal neurons, leading to increased ne...

    Authors: Vishal Chanana, Dila Zafer, Douglas B Kintner, Jayadevi H Chandrashekhar, Jens Eickhoff, Peter A Ferrazzano, Jon E Levine and Pelin Cengiz
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2024 15:30
  17. The insular cortex (IC) plays a pivotal role in processing interoceptive and emotional information, offering insights into sex differences in behavior and cognition. The IC comprises two distinct subregions: t...

    Authors: Daniela Iezzi, Alba Cáceres-Rodríguez, Benjamin Strauss, Pascale Chavis and Olivier J. Manzoni
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2024 15:29
  18. Traumatic events experienced in childhood can lead to increased risk of cardiovascular disorders in adulthood. Black Americans are disproportionately affected, as they are at increased risk for experiencing ch...

    Authors: Charis N. Wiltshire, Nicole Kouri, Cassandra P. Wanna, Sean T. Minton, John M. France, Mariam H. Reda, William Davie, Sattvik Basarkod, Sterling Winters, Rebecca Hinrichs, Anais F. Stenson and Tanja Jovanovic
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2024 15:28
  19. Offspring of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are at an increased risk of developing neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioral disorders compared to offspring from non-affected pregnancies. Using rodent models...

    Authors: Ashley Griffin, Teylor Bowles, Lucia Solis, Teryn Railey, Samer Beauti, Reanna Robinson, Shauna-Kay Spencer, James P Shaffery and Kedra Wallace
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2024 15:27
  20. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a key player of lipid metabolism with higher plasma levels in women throughout their life. Statin treatment affects PCSK9 levels also showing evidence o...

    Authors: Janne Pott, Azin Kheirkhah, Jesper R. Gadin, Marcus E. Kleber, Graciela E. Delgado, Holger Kirsten, Lukas Forer, Stefanie M. Hauck, Ralph Burkhardt, Hubert Scharnagl, Markus Loeffler, Winfried März, Joachim Thiery, Christian Gieger, Annette Peters, Angela Silveira…
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2024 15:26
  21. Puberty depicts a period of profound and multifactorial changes ranging from social to biological factors. While brain development in youths has been studied mostly from an age perspective, recent evidence sug...

    Authors: Nina Gottschewsky, Dominik Kraft and Tobias Kaufmann
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2024 15:25
  22. Disorders/differences of sex development (DSD) are congenital conditions in which the development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is atypical. With overlapping phenotypes and multiple genes involved...

    Authors: Abhinav Parivesh, Emmanuèle Délot, Alejandra Reyes, Janelle Ryan, Surajit Bhattacharya, Vincent Harley and Eric Vilain
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2024 15:24
  23. Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and lethal primary brain tumor in adults, with limited treatment modalities and poor prognosis. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of considering sex differenc...

    Authors: Byunghyun Jang, Dayoung Yoon, Ji Yoon Lee, Jiwon Kim, Jisoo Hong, Harim Koo and Jason K. Sa
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2024 15:23
  24. There is an ongoing debate on whether sex affects immune-suppressive tumor microenvironment and immunotherapy. Here, we explored the underlying molecular bases for sex dimorphisms and their impact on the effic...

    Authors: Huimeng Yan, Jinyuan Huang, Yingying Li and Bin Zhao
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2024 15:22
  25. Differences in male vs. female immune responses are well-documented and have significant clinical implications. While the immunomodulatory effects of sex hormones are well established, the contributions of sex...

    Authors: Carly J. Amato-Menker, Quinn Hopen, Andrea Pettit, Jasleen Gandhi, Gangqing Hu, Rosana Schafer and Jennifer Franko
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2024 15:21
  26. Following exposure to traumatic stress, women are twice as likely as men to develop mood disorders. Yet, individual responses to such stress vary, with some people developing stress-induced psychopathologies w...

    Authors: Arax Tanelian, Bistra Nankova, Mariam Miari and Esther L. Sabban
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2024 15:20
  27. Sex differences exist in the risk of developing type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and in the risk of developing diabetes-associated complications. Sex differences in glucose homeostasis, islet and β cell biology, an...

    Authors: Celena M. Cherian, Hayley R. Reeves, Duneesha De Silva, Serena Tsao, Katie E. Marshall and Elizabeth J. Rideout
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2024 15:19
  28. Pup-dam ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are essential to cognitive and socio-emotional development. In autism and Fragile X Syndrome (FXS), disruptions in pup-dam USV communication hint at a possible connectio...

    Authors: Gabriele Giua, Daniela Iezzi, Alba Caceres-Rodriguez, Benjamin Strauss, Pascale Chavis and Olivier J. Manzoni
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2024 15:18
  29. Sex is an important factor in the progression and treatment of alcohol addiction, and therapeutic approaches may have to be tailored to potential sex differences. This highlights the importance of understandin...

    Authors: Sanne Toivainen, Li Xu, Francesco Gobbo, Andrea Della Valle, Andrea Coppola, Markus Heilig and Esi Domi
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2024 15:17
  30. Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a recurring affective disorder that is two times more prevalent in females than males. Evidence supports immune system dysfunction as a major contributing factor to MDD, nota...

    Authors: Ryan T. McCallum, Rachel-Karson Thériault, Joshua D. Manduca, Isaac S. B. Russell, Angel M. Culmer, Janan Shoja Doost, Tami A. Martino and Melissa L. Perreault
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2024 15:16

    The Correction to this article has been published in Biology of Sex Differences 2024 15:31

  31. Men and women are known to show differences in the incidence and clinical manifestations of mood and anxiety disorders. Many imaging studies have investigated the neural correlates of sex differences in emotio...

    Authors: Shefali Chaudhary, Hak Kei Wong, Yu Chen, Sheng Zhang and Chiang-Shan R. Li
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2024 15:15
  32. The incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD)—the most frequent cause of dementia—is expected to increase as life expectancies rise across the globe. While sex-based differences in AD have previously been describe...

    Authors: Jaime Llera-Oyola, Héctor Carceller, Zoraida Andreu, Marta R. Hidalgo, Irene Soler-Sáez, Fernando Gordillo, Borja Gómez-Cabañes, Beatriz Roson, Maria de la Iglesia-Vayá, Roberta Mancuso, Franca R. Guerini, Akiko Mizokami and Francisco García-García
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2024 15:13
  33. Patients with depression, especially women, are associated with low bone mineral density (BMD). Traditional antidepressants are associated with negative effects on BMD. Few studies have examined the effect of ...

    Authors: Xiaofeng Lan, Haiyan Liu, Chengyu Wang, Weicheng Li, Fan Zhang, Zhibo Hu, Xiaoyu Chen, Zerui You, Yuping Ning and Yanling Zhou
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2024 15:12
  34. Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) is a useful tool for assessing lung grafts quality before transplantation. Studies indicate that donor sex is as an important factor for transplant outcome, as females present hig...

    Authors: Fernanda Yamamoto Ricardo-da-Silva, Roberto Armstrong-Jr, Mayara Munhoz de Assis Ramos, Marina Vidal-dos-Santos, Cristiano Jesus Correia, Petra J. Ottens, Luiz Felipe Pinho Moreira, Henri G. D. Leuvenink and Ana Cristina Breithaupt-Faloppa
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2024 15:11
  35. Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders, with the consumption of alcohol considered a leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide. Lipids play a crucial functional role in ...

    Authors: Carla Perpiñá-Clérigues, Susana Mellado, Cristina Galiana-Roselló, María Fernández-Regueras, Miguel Marcos, Francisco García-García and María Pascual
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2024 15:10
  36. Androgens are important sex hormones in both men and women and are supplemented when endogenous levels are low, for gender transitioning, or to increase libido. Androgens also circulate at higher levels in wom...

    Authors: Alec C. Horton, Mary M. Wilkinson, Isabella Kilanowski-Doroh, Zhejun Dong, Jiao Liu, Benard O. Ogola, Bruna Visniauskas and Sarah H. Lindsey
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2024 15:9
  37. Lewy body dementia (LBD) phenotype is associated with the presence and degree of Lewy body, Alzheimer’s pathologies, and substantia nigra neuron loss. Nigral neuron loss is associated with parkinsonism in LBD,...

    Authors: Ece Bayram, David G. Coughlin, Ravi Rajmohan and Irene Litvan
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2024 15:8
  38. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD), including coronary heart disease (CHD), display a higher prevalence in men than women. This study aims to evaluate the variations in the intestinal microbiota between men and wom...

    Authors: Helena Garcia-Fernandez, Antonio P. Arenas-de Larriva, Javier Lopez-Moreno, Francisco M. Gutierrez-Mariscal, Juan L. Romero-Cabrera, Helena Molina-Abril, Jose D. Torres-Peña, Diego Rodriguez-Cano, Maria M. Malagon, Jose M. Ordovas, Javier Delgado-Lista, Pablo Perez-Martinez, Jose Lopez-Miranda and Antonio Camargo
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2024 15:7
  39. Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) often present sleep disorders and circadian hormonal dysregulation. The role of the microbiota–gut–brain axis in the regulation of feeding behavior has emerged during the la...

    Authors: Colin Salaün, Marine Courvalet, Léna Rousseau, Kévin Cailleux, Jonathan Breton, Christine Bôle-Feysot, Charlène Guérin, Marion Huré, Alexis Goichon, Jean-Claude do Rego, Pierre Déchelotte, David Ribet, Najate Achamrah and Moïse Coëffier
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2024 15:6
  40. Recent decades have seen an exponential rise in global obesity prevalence, with rates nearly doubling in a span of 40 years. A comprehensive knowledge base regarding the systemic effects of obesity is required...

    Authors: Saluda Stapleton, Grace Welch, Lindsay DiBerardo and Linnea R Freeman
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2024 15:5
  41. Cholesterol (Cho) is an essential lipophilic molecule in cells; however, both its decrease and its increase may favor the development of neurological diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Although copper ...

    Authors: Marlene Zubillaga, Julia Tau, Diana Rosa, M. José Bellini and Nathalie Arnal
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2024 15:4
  42. Sexually polymorphic cognition (SPC) results from the interaction between biological (birth-assigned sex (BAS), sex hormones) and socio-cultural (gender identity, gender roles, sexual orientation) factors. The...

    Authors: Louis Cartier, Mina Guérin, Fanny Saulnier, Ioana Cotocea, Amine Mohammedi, Fadila Moussaoui, Sarah Kheloui and Robert-Paul Juster
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2024 15:3
  43. The placenta is vital for fetal development and its contributions to various developmental issues, such as pregnancy complications, fetal growth restriction, and maternal exposure, have been extensively studie...

    Authors: Lisa-Marie Legault, Mélanie Breton-Larrivée, Alexandra Langford-Avelar, Anthony Lemieux and Serge McGraw
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2024 15:2
  44. Neonatal hypoxia ischemia (HI) related brain injury is one of the major causes of life-long neurological morbidities that result in learning and memory impairments. Evidence suggests that male neonates are mor...

    Authors: Vishal Chanana, Margaret Hackett, Nazli Deveci, Nur Aycan, Burak Ozaydin, Nur Sena Cagatay, Damla Hanalioglu, Douglas B. Kintner, Karson Corcoran, Sefer Yapici, Furkan Camci, Jens Eickhoff, Karyn M. Frick, Peter Ferrazzano, Jon E. Levine and Pelin Cengiz
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2024 15:1
  45. Sex differences in language-related abilities have been reported. It is generally assumed that these differences stem from a different organization of language in the brains of females and males. However, rese...

    Authors: Carla Sanchis-Segura, Rand R. Wilcox, Alvaro Javier Cruz-Gómez, Sonia Félix-Esbrí, Alba Sebastián-Tirado and Cristina Forn
    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2023 14:90