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  1. Research

    The effects of 17 alpha-estradiol to inhibit inflammation in vitro

    17 Alpha-estradiol (17 α-E2) is a natural, non-feminizing stereoisomer of 17 beta-estradiol (17 β-E2). Whereas much is known about the physiological effects of 17 β-E2, much less is known about 17 α-E2. For ex...

    Roberta S. Santos, Luciana A. de Fatima, Aaron P. Frank, Everardo M. Carneiro and Deborah J. Clegg

    Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:30

    Published on: 6 September 2017

  2. Research

    Sex differences in thermal detection and thermal pain threshold and the thermal grill illusion: a psychophysical study in young volunteers

    Sex-related differences in human thermal and pain sensitivity are the subject of controversial discussion. The goal of this study in a large number of subjects was to investigate sex differences in thermal and...

    Beate Averbeck, Lena Seitz, Florian P. Kolb and Dieter F. Kutz

    Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:29

    Published on: 1 September 2017

  3. Research

    Genomic upregulation of cardiac Cav1.2α and NCX1 by estrogen in women

    Women have a higher risk of lethal arrhythmias than men in long QT syndrome type 2 (LQTS2), but the mechanisms remain uncertain due to the limited availability of healthy control human tissue. We have previous...

    Rita Papp, Glenna C. L. Bett, Agnieszka Lis, Randall L. Rasmusson, István Baczkó, András Varró and Guy Salama

    Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:26

    Published on: 14 August 2017

  4. Research

    Long-term follow-up in primary Sjögren’s syndrome reveals differences in clinical presentation between female and male patients

    Despite men being less prone to develop autoimmune diseases, male sex has been associated with a more severe disease course in several systemic autoimmune diseases. In the present study, we aimed to investigat...

    Jorge I. Ramírez Sepúlveda, Marika Kvarnström, Per Eriksson, Thomas Mandl, Katrine Brække Norheim, Svein Joar Johnsen, Daniel Hammenfors, Malin V. Jonsson, Kathrine Skarstein, Johan G. Brun, Lars Rönnblom, Helena Forsblad-d’Elia, Sara Magnusson Bucher, Eva Baecklund, Elke Theander, Roald Omdal…

    Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:25

    Published on: 8 August 2017

  5. Review

    Is HPA axis reactivity in childhood gender-specific? A systematic review

    In adults, hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity shows sexual dimorphism, and this is thought to be a mechanism underlying sex-specific disease incidence. Evidence is scarce on whether these sex d...

    Jonneke J. Hollanders, Bibian van der Voorn, Joost Rotteveel and Martijn J. J. Finken

    Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:23

    Published on: 11 July 2017

  6. Research

    Inclusion of sex and gender in biomedical research: survey of clinical research proposed at the University of Pennsylvania

    The 2015 National Institutes of Health (NIH) policy that sex be considered as a biological variable (SABV) is now a critical part of the peer-review process for NIH funding as well as publication in several hi...

    Anne Freeman, Patrick Stanko, Lily N. Berkowitz, Neanta Parnell, Anastasia Zuppe, Tracy L. Bale, Tracy Ziolek and C. Neill Epperson

    Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:22

    Published on: 21 June 2017

  7. Research

    Sex-dependent effects of maternal corticosterone and SSRI treatment on hippocampal neurogenesis across development

    Postpartum depression affects approximately 15% of mothers and represents a form of early life adversity for developing offspring. Postpartum depression can be treated with prescription antidepressants like fl...

    Aarthi R. Gobinath, Joanna L. Workman, Carmen Chow, Stephanie E. Lieblich and Liisa A. M. Galea

    Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:20

    Published on: 2 June 2017

  8. Research

    Sex differences in the development of vascular and renal lesions in mice with a simultaneous deficiency of Apoe and the integrin chain Itga8

    Apoe-deficient (Apoe −/−) mice develop progressive atherosclerotic lesions with age but no severe renal pathology in the absence of additional challenges. We...

    Ines Marek, Maurizio Canu, Nada Cordasic, Manfred Rauh, Gudrun Volkert, Fabian B. Fahlbusch, Wolfgang Rascher, Karl F. Hilgers, Andrea Hartner and Carlos Menendez-Castro

    Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:19

    Published on: 30 May 2017

  9. Research

    Difference in clinical presentation between women and men in incident primary Sjögren’s syndrome

    A more severe disease phenotype has been reported in men compared to women in several rheumatic diseases. However, studies have not conclusively established sex-related clinical features in primary Sjögren’s s...

    Jorge I. Ramírez Sepúlveda, Marika Kvarnström, Susanna Brauner, Chiara Baldini and Marie Wahren-Herlenius

    Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:16

    Published on: 12 May 2017

  10. Research

    Does the sex of one’s co-twin affect height and BMI in adulthood? A study of dizygotic adult twins from 31 cohorts

    The comparison of traits in twins from opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) dizygotic twin pairs is considered a proxy measure of prenatal hormone exposure. To examine possible prenatal hormonal influences on a...

    Leonie H. Bogl, Aline Jelenkovic, Eero Vuoksimaa, Linda Ahrenfeldt, Kirsi H. Pietiläinen, Maria A. Stazi, Corrado Fagnani, Cristina D’Ippolito, Yoon-Mi Hur, Hoe-Uk Jeong, Judy L. Silberg, Lindon J. Eaves, Hermine H. Maes, Gombojav Bayasgalan, Danshiitsoodol Narandalai, Tessa L. Cutler…

    Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:14

    Published on: 27 April 2017

  11. Research

    Sex differences in insular cortex gyri responses to a brief static handgrip challenge

    Cardiovascular disease varies between sexes, suggesting male-female autonomic control differences. Insular gyri help coordinate autonomic regulation and show a sex-dependent response to a sympathetic challenge.

    Paul M. Macey, Nicholas S. Rieken, Jennifer A. Ogren, Katherine E. Macey, Rajesh Kumar and Ronald M. Harper

    Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:13

    Published on: 20 April 2017

  12. Research

    Muscle function and fatigability of trunk flexors in males and females

    Optimal function of the abdominal muscles is necessary for several life functions including lifting and carrying tasks. Sex differences in strength and fatigability are established for many limb muscles and ba...

    Rita E. Deering, Jonathon W. Senefeld, Tatyana Pashibin, Donald A. Neumann and Sandra K. Hunter

    Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:12

    Published on: 17 April 2017

  13. Research

    Do sex differences in CEOAEs and 2D:4D ratios reflect androgen exposure? A study in women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome

    Studies investigating the influence of perinatal hormone exposure on sexually differentiated traits would greatly benefit from biomarkers of these early hormone actions. Click-evoked otoacoustic emissions show...

    Judy van Hemmen, Peggy T. Cohen-Kettenis, Thomas D. Steensma, Dick J. Veltman and Julie Bakker

    Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:11

    Published on: 12 April 2017

  14. Research

    Association between cannabis use and methadone maintenance treatment outcomes: an investigation into sex differences

    Cannabis will soon become legalized in Canada, and it is currently unclear how this will impact public health. Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is the most common pharmacological treatment for opioid use ...

    Laura Zielinski, Meha Bhatt, Nitika Sanger, Carolyn Plater, Andrew Worster, Michael Varenbut, Jeff Daiter, Guillaume Pare, David C. Marsh, Dipika Desai, James MacKillop, Meir Steiner, Stephanie McDermid Vaz, Lehana Thabane and Zainab Samaan

    Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:8

    Published on: 30 March 2017

  15. Research

    Sex differences in the association of phospholipids with components of the metabolic syndrome in young adults

    There are differences in the prevalence and severity of diseases between males, females not taking hormonal contraceptives (non-HC females) and females taking hormonal contraceptives (HC females). The aim of t...

    Sebastian Rauschert, Olaf Uhl, Berthold Koletzko, Trevor A. Mori, Lawrence J. Beilin, Wendy H. Oddy and Christian Hellmuth

    Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:10

    Published on: 28 March 2017

  16. Research

    Severe pulmonary hypertension in aging female apolipoprotein E-deficient mice is rescued by estrogen replacement therapy

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a multifunctional protein, and its deficiency leads to the development of atherosclerosis in mice. Patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) have reduced expression of ApoE in lung t...

    Soban Umar, Rod Partow-Navid, Gregoire Ruffenach, Andrea Iorga, Shayan Moazeni and Mansoureh Eghbali

    Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:9

    Published on: 20 March 2017

  17. Research

    Sex differences in variability across timescales in BALB/c mice

    Females are markedly underinvestigated in the biological and behavioral sciences due to the presumption that cyclic hormonal changes across the ovulatory cycle introduce excess variability to measures of inter...

    Benjamin L. Smarr, Azure D. Grant, Irving Zucker, Brian J. Prendergast and Lance J. Kriegsfeld

    Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:7

    Published on: 9 February 2017

  18. Research

    Sex differences in the aging pattern of renin–angiotensin system serum peptidases

    Serum peptidases, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), neutral endopeptidase (NEP), aminopeptidase N (APN), and aminopeptidase A (APA), are important elements of...

    A. Fernández-Atucha, A. Izagirre, A. B. Fraile-Bermúdez, M. Kortajarena, G. Larrinaga, P. Martinez-Lage, E Echevarría and J. Gil

    Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:5

    Published on: 3 February 2017

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