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  1. Accumulating evidence indicates that high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic disorders are associated with dysbiosis of the gut microbiota. However, the sex-specific characteristics of the gut microbiota and its...

    Authors: Chao Peng, Xinbo Xu, Yanshu Li, Xueyang Li, Xiaoyu Yang, Hongyan Chen, Yin Zhu, Nonghua Lu and Cong He

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:5

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  2. Previously, we showed that 6β-hydroxytestosterone (6β-OHT), a cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1)-derived metabolite of testosterone, contributes to angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension in male mice. This stu...

    Authors: Ajeeth K. Pingili, Brett L. Jennings, Kamalika Mukherjee, Wadah Akroush, Frank J. Gonzalez and Kafait U. Malik

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:4

    Content type: Research

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  3. Sex bias in immune function has been contributed in part to a preponderance of immune system-related genes (ISRG) on the X-chromosome. We verified whether ISRG are more abundant on the X chromosome as compared...

    Authors: Irene Meester, Edgar Manilla-Muñoz, Rafael B. R. León-Cachón, Gustavo A. Paniagua-Frausto, Diego Carrión-Alvarez, C. Orelli Ruiz-Rodríguez, Ximena Rodríguez-Rangel and Joyce M. García-Martínez

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:3

    Content type: Research

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  4. Estrogen plays substantial roles in pain modulation; however, studies concerning sex hormones and nociception often yield confusing results. The discrepancy could be a result of lack of consensus to regard est...

    Authors: Wenxin Zhang, Hui Wu, Qi Xu, Sheng Chen, Lihong Sun, Cuicui Jiao, Luyang Wang, Feng Fu, Ying Feng, Xiaowei Qian and Xinzhong Chen

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:2

    Content type: Research

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  5. Diabetes is a strong risk factor for vascular disease. There is compelling evidence that the relative risk of vascular disease associated with diabetes is substantially higher in women than men. The mechanisms...

    Authors: Rianneke de Ritter, Marit de Jong, Rimke C. Vos, Carla J. H. van der Kallen, Simone J. S. Sep, Mark Woodward, Coen D. A. Stehouwer, Michiel L. Bots and Sanne A. E. Peters

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:1

    Content type: Review

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  6. Since the early days of PCR techniques, sex identification, “sex-typing,” of genomic DNA samples has been a fundamental part of human forensic analysis but also in animal genetics aiming at strategic livestock...

    Authors: Stephan Maxeiner, Martina Sester and Gabriela Krasteva-Christ

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2019 10:62

    Content type: Research

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  7. Although male and female rats differ in their patterns of alcohol use, little is known regarding the neural circuit activity that underlies these differences in behavior. The current study used a machine learn...

    Authors: Angela M. Henricks, Emily D. K. Sullivan, Lucas L. Dwiel, Karina M. Keus, Ethan D. Adner, Alan I. Green and Wilder T. Doucette

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2019 10:61

    Content type: Research

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  8. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) predominantly affects women, but previous studies suggest that men with SLE present a more severe disease phenotype. In this study, we investigated a large and well-character...

    Authors: Jorge I. Ramírez Sepúlveda, Karin Bolin, Johannes Mofors, Dag Leonard, Elisabet Svenungsson, Andreas Jönsen, Christine Bengtsson, Gunnel Nordmark, Solbritt Rantapää Dahlqvist, Anders A. Bengtsson, Lars Rönnblom, Christopher Sjöwall, Iva Gunnarsson and Marie Wahren-Herlenius

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2019 10:60

    Content type: Research

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  9. Placental ischemia and hypertension, characteristic features of preeclampsia, are associated with impaired cerebral blood flow (CBF) autoregulation and cerebral edema. However, the factors that contribute to t...

    Authors: Junie P. Warrington, Fan Fan, Jeremy Duncan, Mark W. Cunningham, Babette B. LaMarca, Ralf Dechend, Gerd Wallukat, Richard J. Roman, Heather A. Drummond, Joey P. Granger and Michael J. Ryan

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2019 10:58

    Content type: Research

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  10. Bipolar disorder (BD) affects both sexes, but important sex differences exist with respect to its symptoms and comorbidities. For example, rapid cycling (RC) is more prevalent in females, and alcohol use disor...

    Authors: William A. Jons, Colin L. Colby, Susan L. McElroy, Mark A. Frye, Joanna M. Biernacka and Stacey J. Winham

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2019 10:57

    Content type: Research

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  11. The prevalence and progression of many illnesses, such as neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases, obesity, and cancer, vary between women and men, often in an age-dependent manner. A joint hallmark of t...

    Authors: Michael Moschinger, Karolina E. Hilse, Anne Rupprecht, Ute Zeitz, Reinhold G. Erben, Thomas Rülicke and Elena E. Pohl

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2019 10:56

    Content type: Research

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  12. Previous studies have shown associations between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity (HPA). We aimed to investigate the association between obsessive-compulsive...

    Authors: Cristian Sebastian Melia, Virginia Soria, Neus Salvat-Pujol, Ángel Cabezas, Roser Nadal, Mikel Urretavizcaya, Alfonso Gutiérrez-Zotes, José Antonio Monreal, José Manuel Crespo, Pino Alonso, Elisabet Vilella, Diego Palao, José Manuel Menchón and Javier Labad

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2019 10:55

    Content type: Research

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  13. Exposure to air pollution and high levels of noise have both been independently associated with the development of adverse pregnancy outcomes including low birth weight. However, exposure to such environmental...

    Authors: Colette N. Miller, Urmila P. Kodavanti, Erica J. Stewart, Mette C. Schladweiler, Judy H. Richards, Samantha J. Snow, Andres R. Henriquez, Wendy M. Oshiro, Aimen K. Farraj, Mehdi S. Hazari and Janice A. Dye

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2019 10:54

    Content type: Research

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  14. Obesity and elevated serum lipids are associated with a threefold increase in the risk of developing atherosclerosis, a condition that underlies stroke, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death. Strateg...

    Authors: Taylor Phelps, Erin Snyder, Erin Rodriguez, Hailey Child and Pamela Harvey

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2019 10:52

    Content type: Review

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  15. Galectin-3 binding protein (Gal3BP), sCD163, galectin-3, and depression have been linked to cardiovascular disease and mortality. In patients with type 1 diabetes, female sex has also been linked to cardiovasc...

    Authors: Eva Olga Melin, Jonatan Dereke and Magnus Hillman

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2019 10:51

    Content type: Research

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  16. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder. Relevant sex differences in symptomatology are discussed. This study compared brain neurometabolism in the anterior cing...

    Authors: Dominique Endres, Ludger Tebartz van Elst, Simon J. Maier, Bernd Feige, Peter Goll, Simon A. Meyer, Swantje Matthies, Katharina Domschke, Thomas Lange, Esther Sobanski, Alexandra Philipsen, Kathrin Nickel and Evgeniy Perlov

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2019 10:50

    Content type: Research

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  17. Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific hypertensive disorder characterized by impaired angiogenesis. We postulate that senescence of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), multipotent cells with pro-angiogenic activities...

    Authors: Sonja Suvakov, Hajrunisa Cubro, Wendy M. White, Yvonne S. Butler Tobah, Tracey L. Weissgerber, Kyra L. Jordan, Xiang Y. Zhu, John R. Woollard, Fouad T. Chebib, Natasa M. Milic, Joseph P. Grande, Ming Xu, Tamara Tchkonia, James L. Kirkland, Lilach O. Lerman and Vesna D. Garovic

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2019 10:49

    Content type: Research

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  18. According to the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group recommendations, boys and girls have different growth trajectories after birth. Our aim was to develop gender-specific fetal growth curves in a low...

    Authors: Sander Galjaard, Lieveke Ameye, Christoph C. Lees, Anne Pexsters, Tom Bourne, Dirk Timmerman and Roland Devlieger

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2019 10:48

    Content type: Research

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  19. Sexual dimorphism in biological responses is a critical knowledge for therapeutic proposals. However, gender differences in intestinal stem cell physiology have been poorly studied. Given the important role of...

    Authors: Julie Noguerol, Pierre-Jean Roustan, Mikael N’Taye, Léo Delcombel, Corinne Rolland, Laura Guiraud, David Sagnat, Anissa Edir, Chrystelle Bonnart, Alexandre Denadai-Souza, Céline Deraison, Nathalie Vergnolle and Claire Racaud-Sultan

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2019 10:47

    Content type: Research

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  20. Expression patterns between males and females vary in every adult tissue, even in organs with no conspicuous dimorphisms such as the heart. While studies of male and female differences have traditionally focus...

    Authors: Daniel F. Deegan, Reza Karbalaei, Jozef Madzo, Rob J. Kulathinal and Nora Engel

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2019 10:46

    Content type: Research

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  21. Obesity increases the risk for hypertension in both sexes, but the prevalence of hypertension is lower in females than in males until menopause, despite a higher prevalence of obesity in females. We previously...

    Authors: Robin Shoemaker, Lisa R. Tannock, Wen Su, Ming Gong, Susan B. Gurley, Sean E. Thatcher, Frederique Yiannikouris, Charles M. Ensor and Lisa A. Cassis

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2019 10:45

    Content type: Research

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  22. Cryptococcus neoformans, the causative agent of cryptococcosis, causes ~ 181,000 deaths annually, with males having a higher incidence of disease than females (7M:3F). The reason for this sex bias remains unclear...

    Authors: Tiffany E. Guess, Joseph Rosen, Natalia Castro-Lopez, Floyd L. Wormley Jr and Erin E. McClelland

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2019 10:44

    Content type: Research

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  23. Skeletal muscle health is a strong predictor of overall health and longevity. Pathologies affecting skeletal muscle such as cancer cachexia, intensive care unit treatment, muscular dystrophies, and others are ...

    Authors: Megan E. Rosa-Caldwell and Nicholas P. Greene

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2019 10:43

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  24. Cardiovascular disease increases with age in both sexes. Treatment can require cardiac surgery, where the hearts are pre-treated with protective cardioplegic solution before ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). Whi...

    Authors: Anjali Ghimire, Elise S. Bisset and Susan E. Howlett

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2019 10:42

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  25. Males and females exhibit significant differences in metabolism and in brain ischemic stroke and different features of brain ischemic lesions are related to different health outcomes. It is critical to underst...

    Authors: Hailuan Zeng, Weibin Shi, Wenhai Jiang, Shengxiang Rao, Beijian Huang, Hongmei Yan and Xin Gao

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2019 10:40

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  26. The incidence and prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) is about twice as high in women compared to men, and those of the neck/shoulder region are particularly high among women. Fatigue and responses ...

    Authors: Annamaria Otto, Kim Emery and Julie N. Côté

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2019 10:39

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  27. Following publication of the original article [1], the authors reported that additional file 1 was incorrect. The corrected additional file 1 is given below.

    Authors: Sujoy Ghosh, Jessica L. Taylor, Tamra M. Mendoza, Thanh Dang, David H. Burk, Yongmei Yu, Gail Kilroy and Z. Elizabeth Floyd

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2019 10:38

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Biology of Sex Differences 2019 10:19

  28. Nicotine exposure enhances Pavlovian conditioned approach (PCA), or the learned approach to reward-predictive cues. While females show elevated approach to conditioned stimuli compared to males, potentially in...

    Authors: Sierra J. Stringfield, Aric C. Madayag, Charlotte A. Boettiger and Donita L. Robinson

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2019 10:37

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  29. Angiotensin-(1-7) is a beneficial hormone of the renin-angiotensin system known to play a positive role in regulation of blood pressure and glucose homeostasis. Previous studies have shown that in high-fat die...

    Authors: Melissa C. White, Amanda J. Miller, Justin Loloi, Sarah S. Bingaman, Biyi Shen, Ming Wang, Yuval Silberman, Sarah H. Lindsey and Amy C. Arnold

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2019 10:36

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  30. Stress is an important contributor to myocardial ischemia and the progression of coronary artery disease (CAD), and women are more susceptible than men to these effects. Little is known, however, about the neu...

    Authors: Nicole Kasher, Matthew T. Wittbrodt, Zuhayr S. Alam, Bruno B. Lima, Jonathon A. Nye, Carolina Campanella, Stacy Ladd, Muhammad Hammadah, Amit J. Shah, Paolo Raggi, Arshed A. Quyyumi, Viola Vaccarino and J. Douglas Bremner

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2019 10:35

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  31. Chronic inflammation and impaired sleep increase the risk for cardiovascular disease. Menopausal women may be particularly at risk as a result of impaired sleep. The objective of the current investigation was ...

    Authors: Bianca D’Antono and Véronique Bouchard

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2019 10:34

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  32. Although some recent studies have indicated an association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and musculoskeletal disease, little is known about the association of MetS with low back pain (LBP). The present stu...

    Authors: Takahiko Yoshimoto, Hirotaka Ochiai, Takako Shirasawa, Satsue Nagahama, Akihito Uehara, Shogo Sai and Akatsuki Kokaze

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2019 10:33

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  33. Studies assessing volumetric sex differences have provided contradictory results. Total intracranial volume (TIV) is a major confounding factor when estimating local volumes of interest (VOIs). We investigated...

    Authors: Carla Sanchis-Segura, Maria Victoria Ibañez-Gual, Jesús Adrián-Ventura, Naiara Aguirre, Álvaro Javier Gómez-Cruz, César Avila and Cristina Forn

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2019 10:32

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  34. It is well documented that the metabolic syndrome predisposes patients to increased cardiovascular risk. Emerging data indicates that cardiovascular risk conferred by metabolic syndrome is highly dependent on ...

    Authors: Jessica L. Faulkner and Eric J. Belin de Chantemèle

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2019 10:30

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  35. Key differences exist between men and women in the determinants and manifestations of cardiovascular and cardiometabolic diseases. Recently, gut microbiome-host relations have been implicated in cardiovascular...

    Authors: Alexander C. Razavi, Kaitlin S. Potts, Tanika N. Kelly and Lydia A. Bazzano

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2019 10:29

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  36. There are sex differences in risk for stroke and small vessel ischemic disease in the brain. Microvesicles (MV) derived from activated cells vary by cell of origin and the stimulus initiating their release. MV...

    Authors: Larry W. Hunter, Muthuvel Jayachandran and Virginia M. Miller

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2019 10:26

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  37. Adipocytes and macrophages, the two major constituents of adipose tissue, exhibit sex differences and work in synergy in adipose tissue physiology and pathophysiology, including obesity-linked insulin resistan...

    Authors: Yang Xin Zi Xu, Geetika Bassi and Suresh Mishra

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2019 10:25

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  38. African Americans (AA) develop hypertension (HTN) at an earlier age, have a greater frequency and severity of HTN, and greater prevalence of uncontrolled HTN as compared to the white population. Mineralocortic...

    Authors: John S. Clemmer, Jessica L. Faulkner, Alex J. Mullen, Kenneth R. Butler and Robert L. Hester

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2019 10:24

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  39. Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is among the most common and disabling persistent pain conditions, with increasing prevalence in the developed world, and affects women to a greater degree than men. In the USA, the gr...

    Authors: Meghna Nandi, Kristin L. Schreiber, Marc O. Martel, Marise Cornelius, Claudia M. Campbell, Jennifer A. Haythornthwaite, Michael T. Smith Jr., John Wright, Linda S. Aglio, Gary Strichartz and Robert R. Edwards

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2019 10:23

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  40. Exposure to an adverse environment in early life can have lifelong consequences for risk of cardiovascular disease. Maternal alcohol (ethanol) intake is common and associated with a variety of harmful effects ...

    Authors: Sarah L. Walton, Melissa Tjongue, Marianne Tare, Edmund Kwok, Megan Probyn, Helena C. Parkington, John F. Bertram, Karen M. Moritz and Kate M. Denton

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2019 10:21

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  41. Antarctica challenges human explorers by its extreme environment. The effects of these unique conditions on the human physiology need to be understood to best mitigate health problems in Antarctic expedition c...

    Authors: C. Strewe, D. Moser, J.-I. Buchheim, H.-C. Gunga, A. Stahn, B. E. Crucian, B. Fiedel, H. Bauer, P. Gössmann-Lang, D. Thieme, E. Kohlberg, A. Choukèr and M. Feuerecker

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2019 10:20

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  42. The obesity-related risk of developing metabolic syndrome is higher in males than in females of reproductive age, likely due to estrogen-mediated reduced adipose tissue inflammation and fibrosis with hypertrop...

    Authors: Sujoy Ghosh, Jessica L. Taylor, Tamra M. Mendoza, Thanh Dang, David H. Burk, Yongmei Yu, Gail Kilroy and Z. Elizabeth Floyd

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2019 10:19

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Biology of Sex Differences 2019 10:38

  43. .

    Authors: Parisa Amiri, Golnaz Vahedi-Notash, Parisa Naseri, Davood Khalili, Seyed Saeed Hashemi Nazari, Yadollah Mehrabi, Ali Reza Mahdavi Hazaveh, Fereidoun Azizi and Farzad Hadaegh

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2019 10:18

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Biology of Sex Differences 2019 10:15