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  1. The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) during pregnancy precedes a high maternal mortality rate of 20–40%. AKI during pregnancy has multiple etiologies; however, the more common are maternal hypertensive d...

    Authors: Jamie Szczepanski, Shauna-Kay Spencer, Ashley Griffin, Teylor Bowles, Jan Michael Williams, Patrick B. Kyle, John Polk Dumas, Sarah Araji and Kedra Wallace

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:54

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  2. Premenopausal women have a lower risk of hypertension compared to age-matched men and postmenopausal women. P2Y2 and P2Y4 purinoceptor can be considered potential contributors to hypertension due to their emergin...

    Authors: Eman Y. Gohar, Malgorzata Kasztan, Shali Zhang, Edward W. Inscho and David M. Pollock

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:52

    Content type: Research

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  3. Most persons with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) remain undiagnosed or are diagnosed in later life. To address the need for earlier diagnosis, we previously assessed miRNAs in the blood plasma of pre...

    Authors: Nihal A. Salem, Amanda H. Mahnke, Alan B. Wells, Alexander M. Tseng, Lyubov Yevtushok, Natalya Zymak-Zakutnya, Wladimir Wertlecki, Christina D. Chambers and Rajesh C. Miranda

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:51

    Content type: Research

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  4. Sex-related differences in the occurrence of autoimmune diseases is well documented, with females showing a greater propensity to develop these diseases than their male counterparts. Sex hormones, namely dihyd...

    Authors: Ninaad Lasrado, Ting Jia, Chandirasegaran Massilamany, Rodrigo Franco, Zsolt Illes and Jay Reddy

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:50

    Content type: Review

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  5. Women are more susceptible to multiple sclerosis (MS) than men by a ratio of approximately 3:1. However, being male is a risk factor for worse disability progression. Inflammatory genes have been linked to sus...

    Authors: Rhonda R. Voskuhl, Kevin Patel, Friedemann Paul, Stefan M. Gold, Michael Scheel, Joseph Kuchling, Graham Cooper, Susanna Asseyer, Claudia Chien, Alexander U. Brandt, Cassandra Eve Meyer and Allan MacKenzie-Graham

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:49

    Content type: Research

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  6. Acutely, testosterone (TES) and other androgens are efficacious vasodilators, both in vitro and in vivo; however, their long-term effects on arterial blood pressure (BP) remain unclear. It was hypothesized tha...

    Authors: Andrea E. Hanson, Mercedes Perusquia and John N. Stallone

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:48

    Content type: Research

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  7. Many patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) are women. Exploring mechanisms underlying the sex differences may improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of HFpEF. Studies f...

    Authors: Susan Stienen, João Pedro Ferreira, Masatake Kobayashi, Gregoire Preud’homme, Daniela Dobre, Jean-Loup Machu, Kevin Duarte, Emmanuel Bresso, Marie-Dominique Devignes, Natalia López Andrés, Nicolas Girerd, Svend Aakhus, Giuseppe Ambrosio, Hans-Peter Brunner-La Rocca, Ricardo Fontes-Carvalho, Alan G. Fraser…

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:47

    Content type: Research

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  8. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common liver cancer and is highly malignant. Male prevalence and frequent activation of the Ras signaling pathway are distinct characteristics of HCC. However, the un...

    Authors: Huiling Li, Zhuona Rong, Hong Wang, Nan Zhang, Chunwen Pu, Yi Zhao, Xu Zheng, Chuanyi Lei, Yang Liu, Xiaoqin Luo, Jun Chen, Fujin Wang, Aiguo Wang and Jingyu Wang

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:46

    Content type: Research

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  9. Estradiol and testosterone are powerful steroid hormones that impact brain function in numerous ways. During development, these hormones can act to program the adult brain in a male or female direction. During...

    Authors: Damian G. Zuloaga, Ashley L. Heck, Rose M. De Guzman and Robert J. Handa

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:44

    Content type: Review

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  10. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) of the stomach are the most common GISTs. The risk, incidence, and outcome of cancer are different between the sexes. Whether gender is related to the prognosis of gastr...

    Authors: Jianfang Rong, Sihai Chen, Conghua Song, Huan Wang, Qiaoyun Zhao, Rulin Zhao, Yajing He, Lili Yan, Yanping Song, Fangfei Wang and Yong Xie

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:43

    Content type: Research

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  11. Human X and Y chromosomes share an evolutionary origin and, as a consequence, sequence similarity. We investigated whether the sequence homology between the X and Y chromosomes affects the alignment of RNA-Seq...

    Authors: Kimberly C. Olney, Sarah M. Brotman, Jocelyn P. Andrews, Valeria A. Valverde-Vesling and Melissa A. Wilson

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:42

    Content type: Research

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  12. Gender difference in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is an important topic in the field of cardiovascular medicine. In this study, we focused on the mortality difference of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), whi...

    Authors: Zujie Gao, Jiang Xiong, Zengsheng Chen, Xiaoyan Deng, Zaipin Xu, Anqiang Sun and Yubo Fan

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:41

    Content type: Research

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  13. Individuals exposed to gestational stressors such as alcohol exhibit a spectrum of growth patterns, suggesting individualized responses to the stressors. We hypothesized that intrauterine growth responses to g...

    Authors: Sze Ting Cecilia Kwan, Brandon H. Presswood, Kaylee K. Helfrich, Joshua W. Baulch, Sandra M. Mooney and Susan M. Smith

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:40

    Content type: Research

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  14. X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is the mechanism by which the X-linked gene dosage is adjusted between the sexes. Evidence shows that many sex-specific diseases have their basis in X chromosome biology. While ...

    Authors: Xinzhu Zhang, Yuhong Li, Lei Ma, Guofu Zhang, Min Liu, Chuanyue Wang, Yi Zheng and Rena Li

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:39

    Content type: Research

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  15. There are inconsistent interpretations of the interrelationship of adiposity, anthropometric indices, and blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive patients. Additionally, whether these relationships differ between ...

    Authors: Youzhou Chen, Zhuoli Zhang, Jihong Wang, Huayi Sun, Xingshan Zhao, Xiaoguang Cheng and Qiong Zhao

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:38

    Content type: Research

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  16. Recent data suggest that excessive alcohol use is increasing among women and older adults. Such trends are concerning, as women are more vulnerable to alcohol-related health consequences, and such health probl...

    Authors: MacKenzie R. Peltier, Terril L. Verplaetse, Walter Roberts, Kelly Moore, Catherine Burke, Phillip L. Marotta, Sarah Phillips, Philip H. Smith and Sherry A. McKee

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:37

    Content type: Research

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  17. Studies have recently examined the role of epigenetic mechanisms in preeclampsia pathophysiology. One commonly examined epigenetic process is DNA methylation. This heritable epigenetic marker is involved in ma...

    Authors: A. Cirkovic, V. Garovic, J. Milin Lazovic, O. Milicevic, M. Savic, N. Rajovic, N. Aleksic, T. Weissgerber, A. Stefanovic, D. Stanisavljevic and N. Milic

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:36

    Content type: Review

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  18. Women show greater pathological Tau biomarkers than men along the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) continuum, particularly among apolipoprotein ε-E4 (APOE4) carriers; however, the reason for this sex difference in unk...

    Authors: Erin E. Sundermann, Matthew S. Panizzon, Xu Chen, Murray Andrews, Douglas Galasko and Sarah J. Banks

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:33

    Content type: Research

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  19. The hippocampus is central to spatial learning and stress responsiveness, both of which differ in form and function in males versus females, yet precisely how the hippocampus contributes to these sex differenc...

    Authors: Katherine E. Kight and Margaret M. McCarthy

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:30

    Content type: Review

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  20. Emerging evidence from China suggests that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is deadlier for infected men than women with a 2.8% fatality rate being reported in Chinese men versus 1.7% in women. Further, sex...

    Authors: Catherine Gebhard, Vera Regitz-Zagrosek, Hannelore K. Neuhauser, Rosemary Morgan and Sabra L. Klein

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:29

    Content type: Review

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  21. The commonly used laboratory rat, Rattus norvegicus, is unique in having multiple Sry gene copies found on the Y chromosome, with different copies encoding amino acid variations that influence the resulting prote...

    Authors: Jeremy W. Prokop, Surya B. Chhetri, J. Edward van Veen, Xuqi Chen, Adam C. Underwood, Katie Uhl, Melinda R. Dwinell, Aron M. Geurts, Stephanie M. Correa and Arthur P. Arnold

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:28

    Content type: Research

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  22. Alcohol misuse and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are highly comorbid, and treatment outcomes are worse in individuals with both conditions. Although more men report experiencing traumatic events than w...

    Authors: Lucas Albrechet-Souza, Connor L. Schratz and Nicholas W. Gilpin

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:27

    Content type: Research

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  23. Since the placenta also has a sex, fetal sex–specific differences in the occurrence of placenta-mediated complications could exist.

    Authors: Zoe A. Broere-Brown, Maria C. Adank, Laura Benschop, Myrte Tielemans, Taulant Muka, Romy Gonçalves, Wichor M. Bramer, Josje D Schoufour, Trudy Voortman, Eric A. P. Steegers, Oscar H. Franco and Sarah Schalekamp-Timmermans

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:26

    Content type: Review

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  24. Asymmetric fetal growth and male sex are both associated with adverse neonatal outcome. However, less is known about the influence of asymmetric growth and fetal sex within SGA neonates, a group of infants alr...

    Authors: Eva R. van der Vlugt, Petra E. Verburg, Shalem Y. Leemaqz, Lesley M. E. McCowan, Lucilla Poston, Louise C. Kenny, Jenny Myers, James J. Walker, Gustaaf A. Dekker and Claire T. Roberts

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:25

    Content type: Research

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  25. Immunotherapies are often used for the treatment, remission, and possible cure of autoimmune diseases, infectious diseases, and cancers. Empirical evidence illustrates that females and males differ in outcomes...

    Authors: Sabra L. Klein and Rosemary Morgan

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:24

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  26. Gender-specific studies remain a neglected area of biomedical research. Recent reports have emphasized that sex-related biological factors may affect disease progression during HIV-1 infection. The aim of this...

    Authors: Letizia Santinelli, Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Cristian Borrazzo, Giuseppe Pietro Innocenti, Federica Frasca, Eugenio Nelson Cavallari, Luigi Celani, Chiara Nonne, Claudio Maria Mastroianni and Gabriella d’Ettorre

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:23

    Content type: Research

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  27. Sleep plays an important role in vulnerability to mood disorders. However, despite the existence of sex differences in vulnerability to mood disorders, no study has yet investigated the sex effect on sleep net...

    Authors: Matthieu Hein, Jean-Pol Lanquart, Gwénolé Loas, Philippe Hubain and Paul Linkowski

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:22

    Content type: Research

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  28. Social functioning (SF), the ability to engage with life and fulfill roles may be a salient “patient important outcome” in addiction treatment. It is not known if medication-assisted treatment (MAT) impacts SF...

    Authors: Emma A. van Reekum, Tea Rosic, Jacqueline Hudson, Nitika Sanger, David C. Marsh, Andrew Worster, Lehana Thabane and Zainab Samaan

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:20

    Content type: Research

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  29. Large elastic arterial stiffening and endothelial dysfunction are phenotypic characteristics of vascular aging, a major risk factor for age-associated cardiovascular diseases. Compared to men, vascular aging i...

    Authors: Kerrie L. Moreau, Matthew C. Babcock and Kerry L. Hildreth

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:18

    Content type: Review

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  30. We now know that cancer is many different diseases, with great variation even within a single histological subtype. With the current emphasis on developing personalized approaches to cancer treatment, it is as...

    Authors: Joshua B. Rubin, Joseph S. Lagas, Lauren Broestl, Jasmin Sponagel, Nathan Rockwell, Gina Rhee, Sarah F. Rosen, Si Chen, Robyn S. Klein, Princess Imoukhuede and Jingqin Luo

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:17

    Content type: Review

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  31. We sought to determine whether there are sex-based differences in the requirements for calories or protein for optimal growth during the transition phase (TP) when an extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infant, ...

    Authors: Pradeep Alur, Renjithkumar Kalikkot Thekkeveedu, Madaleine Meeks, Kyle C. Hart, Jagdish Desai, Marla Johnson, Sara Marie Presley and Naveed Hussain

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:16

    Content type: Research

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  32. Studies have presented conflicting findings regarding the association between both fluctuation and deprivation of ovarian hormones and cardiovascular autonomic modulation and oxidative stress and their potenti...

    Authors: Maycon Junior Ferreira, Iris Callado Sanches, Luciana Jorge, Susana Francisca Llesuy, Maria Cláudia Irigoyen and Kátia De Angelis

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:15

    Content type: Research

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  33. The role of sex hormones on cellular function is unclear. Studies show androgens and estrogens are protective in the CNS, whereas other studies found no effects or damaging effects. Furthermore, sex difference...

    Authors: Phong Duong, Mavis A. A. Tenkorang, Jenny Trieu, Clayton McCuiston, Nataliya Rybalchenko and Rebecca L. Cunningham

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:12

    Content type: Research

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  34. The mechanisms involved in pulmonary hypertension (PH) development in patients and pre-clinical models are poorly understood. PH has a well-established sex dimorphism in patients with increased frequency of PH...

    Authors: Olga Rafikova, Joel James, Cody A. Eccles, Sergey Kurdyukov, Maki Niihori, Mathews Valuparampil Varghese and Ruslan Rafikov

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:11

    Content type: Research

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  35. Obesity increases sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in men, but not women. Here, we review current evidence suggesting that sexually dimorphic sympathoexcitatory responses to leptin and insulin may contribute. ...

    Authors: Zhigang Shi, Jennifer Wong and Virginia L. Brooks

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:10

    Content type: Review

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  36. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) belong to a large family comprising 22 FGF polypeptides that are widely expressed in tissues. Most of the FGFs can be secreted and involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle...

    Authors: Wei-hua Jia, Nuo-qi Wang, Lin Yin, Xi Chen, Bi-yu Hou, Jin-hua Wang, Gui-fen Qiang, Chi Bun Chan, Xiu-ying Yang and Guan-hua Du

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:9

    Content type: Research

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  37. Depression and anxiety are more common among females than males and represent a leading cause of disease-related disability in women. Since the dopamine D1-D2 heteromer is involved in depression- and anxiety-l...

    Authors: Ahmed Hasbi, Tuan Nguyen, Haneen Rahal, Joshua D. Manduca, Sharon Miksys, Rachel F. Tyndale, Bertha K. Madras, Melissa L. Perreault and Susan R. George

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:8

    Content type: Research

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  38. Biomechanical remodeling of coronary resistance arteries in physiological left ventricular hypertrophy has not yet been analyzed, and the possible sex differences are unknown.

    Authors: Marianna Török, Anna Monori-Kiss, Éva Pál, Eszter Horváth, Attila Jósvai, Petra Merkely, Bálint András Barta, Csaba Mátyás, Attila Oláh, Tamás Radovits, Béla Merkely, Nándor Ács, György László Nádasy and Szabolcs Várbíró

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:7

    Content type: Research

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  39. Musculoskeletal disorders are more prevalent among women than among men, which may be explained by aspects of motor control, including neuromuscular requirements and motor variability. Using an exploratory app...

    Authors: Tessy Luger, Robert Seibt, Monika A. Rieger and Benjamin Steinhilber

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:6

    Content type: Research

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  40. Accumulating evidence indicates that high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic disorders are associated with dysbiosis of the gut microbiota. However, the sex-specific characteristics of the gut microbiota and its...

    Authors: Chao Peng, Xinbo Xu, Yanshu Li, Xueyang Li, Xiaoyu Yang, Hongyan Chen, Yin Zhu, Nonghua Lu and Cong He

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2020 11:5

    Content type: Research

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