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  1. Content type: Letter to the Editor

    Investigating fetal development in mice necessitates the determination of fetal sex. However, whilst the sex of adult and juvenile mice can be readily distinguished from anogenital distance, the sex of fetal a...

    Authors: Simon James Tunster

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:31

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  2. Content type: Research

    17 Alpha-estradiol (17 α-E2) is a natural, non-feminizing stereoisomer of 17 beta-estradiol (17 β-E2). Whereas much is known about the physiological effects of 17 β-E2, much less is known about 17 α-E2. For ex...

    Authors: Roberta S. Santos, Luciana A. de Fatima, Aaron P. Frank, Everardo M. Carneiro and Deborah J. Clegg

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:30

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  3. Content type: Research

    Sex-related differences in human thermal and pain sensitivity are the subject of controversial discussion. The goal of this study in a large number of subjects was to investigate sex differences in thermal and...

    Authors: Beate Averbeck, Lena Seitz, Florian P. Kolb and Dieter F. Kutz

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:29

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  4. Content type: Research

    Pre-implantation embryos exhibit sexual dimorphisms in both primates and rodents. To determine whether these differences reflected sex-biased expression patterns, we generated transcriptome profiles for six 40...

    Authors: Rachael J. Werner, Bryant M. Schultz, Jacklyn M. Huhn, Jaroslav Jelinek, Jozef Madzo and Nora Engel

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:28

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  5. Content type: Research

    Sexual differentiation of the male brain, and specifically the stress circuitry in the hypothalamus, is primarily driven by estrogen exposure during the perinatal period. Surprisingly, this single hormone prom...

    Authors: Christopher P. Morgan and Tracy L. Bale

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:27

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  6. Content type: Research

    Women have a higher risk of lethal arrhythmias than men in long QT syndrome type 2 (LQTS2), but the mechanisms remain uncertain due to the limited availability of healthy control human tissue. We have previous...

    Authors: Rita Papp, Glenna C. L. Bett, Agnieszka Lis, Randall L. Rasmusson, István Baczkó, András Varró and Guy Salama

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:26

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  7. Content type: Research

    Despite men being less prone to develop autoimmune diseases, male sex has been associated with a more severe disease course in several systemic autoimmune diseases. In the present study, we aimed to investigat...

    Authors: Jorge I. Ramírez Sepúlveda, Marika Kvarnström, Per Eriksson, Thomas Mandl, Katrine Brække Norheim, Svein Joar Johnsen, Daniel Hammenfors, Malin V. Jonsson, Kathrine Skarstein, Johan G. Brun, Lars Rönnblom, Helena Forsblad-d’Elia, Sara Magnusson Bucher, Eva Baecklund, Elke Theander, Roald Omdal…

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:25

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  8. Content type: Research

    The thermoneutral zone (TNZ) is a species-specific range of ambient temperature (T a), at which mammals can maintain a constant body temperature with the lowest metabolic rate. The TNZ ...

    Authors: Kasiphak Kaikaew, Jacobie Steenbergen, Axel P. N. Themmen, Jenny A. Visser and Aldo Grefhorst

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:24

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  9. Content type: Review

    In adults, hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity shows sexual dimorphism, and this is thought to be a mechanism underlying sex-specific disease incidence. Evidence is scarce on whether these sex d...

    Authors: Jonneke J. Hollanders, Bibian van der Voorn, Joost Rotteveel and Martijn J. J. Finken

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:23

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  10. Content type: Research

    The 2015 National Institutes of Health (NIH) policy that sex be considered as a biological variable (SABV) is now a critical part of the peer-review process for NIH funding as well as publication in several hi...

    Authors: Anne Freeman, Patrick Stanko, Lily N. Berkowitz, Neanta Parnell, Anastasia Zuppe, Tracy L. Bale, Tracy Ziolek and C. Neill Epperson

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:22

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  11. Content type: Research

    Postpartum depression affects approximately 15% of mothers and represents a form of early life adversity for developing offspring. Postpartum depression can be treated with prescription antidepressants like fl...

    Authors: Aarthi R. Gobinath, Joanna L. Workman, Carmen Chow, Stephanie E. Lieblich and Liisa A. M. Galea

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:20

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  12. Content type: Research

    Apoe-deficient (Apoe −/−) mice develop progressive atherosclerotic lesions with age but no severe renal pathology in the absence of additional challenges. We...

    Authors: Ines Marek, Maurizio Canu, Nada Cordasic, Manfred Rauh, Gudrun Volkert, Fabian B. Fahlbusch, Wolfgang Rascher, Karl F. Hilgers, Andrea Hartner and Carlos Menendez-Castro

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:19

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  13. Content type: Research

    A more severe disease phenotype has been reported in men compared to women in several rheumatic diseases. However, studies have not conclusively established sex-related clinical features in primary Sjögren’s s...

    Authors: Jorge I. Ramírez Sepúlveda, Marika Kvarnström, Susanna Brauner, Chiara Baldini and Marie Wahren-Herlenius

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:16

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  14. Content type: Commentary

    Science has come a long way with regard to the consideration of sex differences in clinical and preclinical research, but one field remains behind the curve: human statistical genetics. The goal of this commen...

    Authors: Matthew S. Powers, Phillip H. Smith, Sherry A. McKee and Marissa A. Ehringer

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:15

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  15. Content type: Research

    The comparison of traits in twins from opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) dizygotic twin pairs is considered a proxy measure of prenatal hormone exposure. To examine possible prenatal hormonal influences on a...

    Authors: Leonie H. Bogl, Aline Jelenkovic, Eero Vuoksimaa, Linda Ahrenfeldt, Kirsi H. Pietiläinen, Maria A. Stazi, Corrado Fagnani, Cristina D’Ippolito, Yoon-Mi Hur, Hoe-Uk Jeong, Judy L. Silberg, Lindon J. Eaves, Hermine H. Maes, Gombojav Bayasgalan, Danshiitsoodol Narandalai, Tessa L. Cutler…

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:14

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  16. Content type: Research

    Cardiovascular disease varies between sexes, suggesting male-female autonomic control differences. Insular gyri help coordinate autonomic regulation and show a sex-dependent response to a sympathetic challenge.

    Authors: Paul M. Macey, Nicholas S. Rieken, Jennifer A. Ogren, Katherine E. Macey, Rajesh Kumar and Ronald M. Harper

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:13

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  17. Content type: Research

    Optimal function of the abdominal muscles is necessary for several life functions including lifting and carrying tasks. Sex differences in strength and fatigability are established for many limb muscles and ba...

    Authors: Rita E. Deering, Jonathon W. Senefeld, Tatyana Pashibin, Donald A. Neumann and Sandra K. Hunter

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:12

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  18. Content type: Research

    Studies investigating the influence of perinatal hormone exposure on sexually differentiated traits would greatly benefit from biomarkers of these early hormone actions. Click-evoked otoacoustic emissions show...

    Authors: Judy van Hemmen, Peggy T. Cohen-Kettenis, Thomas D. Steensma, Dick J. Veltman and Julie Bakker

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:11

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  19. Content type: Research

    Cannabis will soon become legalized in Canada, and it is currently unclear how this will impact public health. Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is the most common pharmacological treatment for opioid use ...

    Authors: Laura Zielinski, Meha Bhatt, Nitika Sanger, Carolyn Plater, Andrew Worster, Michael Varenbut, Jeff Daiter, Guillaume Pare, David C. Marsh, Dipika Desai, James MacKillop, Meir Steiner, Stephanie McDermid Vaz, Lehana Thabane and Zainab Samaan

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:8

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  20. Content type: Research

    There are differences in the prevalence and severity of diseases between males, females not taking hormonal contraceptives (non-HC females) and females taking hormonal contraceptives (HC females). The aim of t...

    Authors: Sebastian Rauschert, Olaf Uhl, Berthold Koletzko, Trevor A. Mori, Lawrence J. Beilin, Wendy H. Oddy and Christian Hellmuth

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:10

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  21. Content type: Research

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a multifunctional protein, and its deficiency leads to the development of atherosclerosis in mice. Patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) have reduced expression of ApoE in lung t...

    Authors: Soban Umar, Rod Partow-Navid, Gregoire Ruffenach, Andrea Iorga, Shayan Moazeni and Mansoureh Eghbali

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:9

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  22. Content type: Research

    Females are markedly underinvestigated in the biological and behavioral sciences due to the presumption that cyclic hormonal changes across the ovulatory cycle introduce excess variability to measures of inter...

    Authors: Benjamin L. Smarr, Azure D. Grant, Irving Zucker, Brian J. Prendergast and Lance J. Kriegsfeld

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:7

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  23. Content type: Research

    Physiological factors such as age and sex have been shown to be risk factors for adverse effects in the liver, including liver diseases and drug-induced liver injury. Previously, we have reported age- and sex-...

    Authors: Joshua C. Kwekel, Vikrant Vijay, Tao Han, Carrie L. Moland, Varsha G. Desai and James C. Fuscoe

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:6

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  24. Content type: Research

    Serum peptidases, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), neutral endopeptidase (NEP), aminopeptidase N (APN), and aminopeptidase A (APA), are important elements of...

    Authors: A. Fernández-Atucha, A. Izagirre, A. B. Fraile-Bermúdez, M. Kortajarena, G. Larrinaga, P. Martinez-Lage, E Echevarría and J. Gil

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:5

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  25. Content type: Research

    Eighty percent of patients who receive bariatric surgery are women, yet the majority of preclinical studies are in male rodents. Because sex differences drive hepatic gene expression and overall lipid metaboli...

    Authors: Bernadette E. Grayson, Ruth Gutierrez-Aguilar, Joyce E. Sorrell, Emily K. Matter, Michelle R. Adams, Philip Howles, Rebekah Karns, Randy J. Seeley and Darleen A. Sandoval

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:4

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  26. Content type: Review

    Gender-specific differences in hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity have been postulated to emerge during puberty. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to test the hypothesis that g...

    Authors: Bibian van der Voorn, Jonneke J. Hollanders, Johannes C. F. Ket, Joost Rotteveel and Martijn J. J. Finken

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:3

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  27. Content type: Research

    Corticotropin-releasing factor overexpressing (CRF-OE) male mice showed an inhibited feeding response to a fast, and lower plasma acyl ghrelin and Fos expression in the arcuate nucleus compared to wild-type (W...

    Authors: Lixin Wang, Miriam Goebel-Stengel, Pu-Qing Yuan, Andreas Stengel and Yvette Taché

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:2

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  28. Content type: Research

    There is inconclusive evidence about the role of sex as a risk factor for doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity. Recent experimental studies have shown that adult female rats are protected against DOX-induc...

    Authors: Marianne K. O. Grant, Davis M. Seelig, Leslie C. Sharkey and Beshay N. Zordoky

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2017 8:1

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  29. Content type: Review

    In animals with heteromorphic sex chromosomes, all sex differences originate from the sex chromosomes, which are the only factors that are consistently different in male and female zygotes. In mammals, the imb...

    Authors: Paul S. Burgoyne and Arthur P. Arnold

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:68

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  30. Content type: Research

    The higher prevalence of obesity-related metabolic disease in males suggests that female sex hormones provide protective mechanisms against the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Because browning of white adi...

    Authors: Sang-Nam Kim, Young-Suk Jung, Hyun-Jung Kwon, Je Kyung Seong, James G. Granneman and Yun-Hee Lee

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:67

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  31. Content type: Research

    Lifestyle factors may influence the risk of developing pancreatic cancer. Whereas cigarette smoking is an established risk factor, the effects of high alcohol intake and obesity are more uncertain. The aim of ...

    Authors: Gustav Andersson, Christoffer Wennersten, Signe Borgquist and Karin Jirström

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:66

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  32. Content type: Research

    Sexual dimorphism in blood pressure has been associated with differential expression of the angiotensin II (AII) receptors and with activity of the nervous system. It is generally accepted that ageing affects ...

    Authors: Wioletta Pijacka, Bethan Clifford, Dawid Walas, Chantal Tilburgs, Jaap A. Joles, Sarah McMullen and Simon C. Langley-Evans

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:64

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  33. Content type: Research

    Previous studies have indicated that inefficient energy utilization may play a pivotal role in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). However, whether plasma free fatty acid (FFA), a main energy substrate of heart...

    Authors: Chengzhi Yang, Changlin Zhang, Jiansong Yuan, Jingang Cui, Shengwen Liu, Fenghuan Hu, Weixian Yang, Xuanye Bi and Shubin Qiao

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:63

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  34. Content type: Research

    Previous studies have shown that total cholesterol (TC) levels are associated with stroke outcomes, but sex differences in the association between TC levels, especially a low TC level, and ischemic stroke outc...

    Authors: Guanen Zhou, Zhongping An, Wenjuan Zhao, Yan Hong, Haolin Xin, Xianjia Ning and Jinghua Wang

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:62

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  35. Content type: Research

    The C57BL/6J.YA/J mouse strain is a chromosome-substituted line where the original male-specific portion of chromosome Y (MSY) from C57BL/6J mice was substituted for that from A/J mice. In hearts from male C57BL/...

    Authors: Samantha D. Praktiknjo, Sylvie Picard and Christian F. Deschepper

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:61

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  36. Content type: Research

    Biological sex plays a prominent role in the prevalence and severity of a number of important stress-related gastrointestinal and immune-related diseases including IBS and allergy/anaphylaxis. Despite the esta...

    Authors: Emily Mackey, Saravanan Ayyadurai, Calvin S. Pohl, Susan D’ Costa, Yihang Li and Adam J. Moeser

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:60

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  37. Content type: Research

    Sex influences susceptibility to many infectious diseases, including some manifestations of leishmaniasis. The disease is caused by parasites that enter to the skin and can spread to the lymph nodes, spleen, l...

    Authors: Martina Slapničková, Valeriya Volkova, Marie Čepičková, Tatyana Kobets, Matyáš Šíma, Milena Svobodová, Peter Demant and Marie Lipoldová

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:59

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  38. Content type: Letter to the Editor

    NR5A1 is the key regulator of adrenal and gonadal development in both humans and mice. Recently, a missense substitution in human NR5A1, p.R92W, was shown to underlie gonadal dysgenesis in genetic males and testi...

    Authors: Mami Miyado, Masafumi Inui, Maki Igarashi, Yuko Katoh-Fukui, Kei Takasawa, Akiko Hakoda, Junko Kanno, Kenichi Kashimada, Kenji Miyado, Moe Tamano, Tsutomu Ogata, Shuji Takada and Maki Fukami

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7:56

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  39. Content type: Commentary

    The goal of the Sex and Gender Specific Health (SGSH) curriculum at the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center (TTUHSC) is to advance the understanding of sex/gender differences, increase the awareness o...

    Authors: Steven M. Crooks, Jongpil Cheon, Robert Casanova and Marjorie Jenkins

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7(Suppl 1):49

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    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 7 Supplement 1

  40. Content type: Research

    Sex and gender influence disease presentation, treatment, healthcare access, and long-term outcomes. It is uncertain to what extent sex- and gender-based medicine (SGBM) content has been integrated into emerge...

    Authors: Tracy E. Madsen and Alyson J. McGregor

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7(Suppl 1):48

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    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 7 Supplement 1

  41. Content type: Commentary

    In the era of individualized medicine, training future scientists and health-care providers in the principles of sex- and gender-based differences in health and disease is critical in order to optimize patient...

    Authors: Virginia M. Miller, Georgios Kararigas, Ute Seeland, Vera Regitz-Zagrosek, Karolina Kublickiene, Gillian Einstein, Robert Casanova and Marianne J. Legato

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7(Suppl 1):44

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    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 7 Supplement 1

  42. Content type: Commentary

    Despite overwhelming evidence that sex and gender are critical factors in the delivery and practice of medicine, there is no unified sex- and gender-based medicine (SGBM) undergraduate medical education curric...

    Authors: Alyson J. McGregor, Ana Núñez, Rebecca Barron, Robert Casanova and Eliza Lo Chin

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7(Suppl 1):43

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    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 7 Supplement 1

  43. Content type: Commentary

    Efforts to integrate gender medicine into medical school curricula have focused largely on the work of individual champions. Online sex and gender materials for undergraduate courses have also been developed a...

    Authors: Cara Tannenbaum and Geneviève Moineau

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7(Suppl 1):41

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    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 7 Supplement 1

  44. Content type: Commentary

    Sex- and gender-based medicine (SGBM) aims to (1) delineate and investigate sex- and gender-based differences in health, disease, and response to treatment and (2) apply that knowledge to clinical care to impr...

    Authors: Michael M. Song, Betsy G. Jones and Robert A. Casanova

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2016 7(Suppl 1):40

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    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 7 Supplement 1