Organization WH, Unit WHOMoSA. Global status report on alcohol and health, 2014. Geneva: WHO Press; 2014.
Fahed AC, El-Hage-Sleiman A-KM, Farhat TI, Nemer GM. Diet, genetics, and disease: a focus on the Middle East and North Africa region. J Nutr Metab. 2012;2012:1-19.
Turk-Adawi K, Sarrafzadegan N, Fadhil I, Taubert K, Sadeghi M, Wenger NK, et al. Cardiovascular disease in the Eastern Mediterranean region: epidemiology and risk factor burden. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2017;15(2):106-19.
Malekzadeh MM, Etemadi A, Kamangar F, Khademi H, Golozar A, Islami F, et al. Prevalence, awareness and risk factors of hypertension in a large cohort of Iranian adult population. J Hypertens. 2013;31(7):1364.
Howe LD, Chaturvedi N, Lawlor DA, Ferreira DL, Fraser A, Smith GD, et al. Rapid increases in infant adiposity and overweight/obesity in childhood are associated with higher central and brachial blood pressure in early adulthood. J Hypertens. 2014;32(9):1789.
Akbari M, Moosazadeh M, Ghahramani S, Tabrizi R, Kolahdooz F, Asemi Z, et al. High prevalence of hypertension among Iranian children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Hypertens. 2017;35(6):1155–63.
Fallah Z, Djalalinia S, Qorbani M, Farzadfar F, Kelishadi R. A systematic review of studies on blood pressure in Iranian pediatric population: first report from the Middle East and North Africa. Iran J Pediatr. 2016;26(2):e4496.
Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM. Prevalence of obesity and trends in body mass index among US children and adolescents, 1999-2010. JAMA. 2012;307(5):483–90.
Rahmani A, Sayehmiri K, Asadollahi K, Sarokhani D, Islami F, Sarokhani M. Investigation of the prevalence of obesity in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis study. Acta Med Iran. 2015;53(10):596–607.
Harpham T. Urbanization and mental health in developing countries: a research role for social scientists, public health professionals and social psychiatrists. Soc Sci Med. 1994;39(2):233–45.
Riha J, Karabarinde A, Ssenyomo G, Allender S, Asiki G, Kamali A, et al. Urbanicity and lifestyle risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases in rural Uganda: a cross-sectional study. PLoS Med. 2014;11(7):e1001683.
Lindroth M, Lundqvist R, Lilja M, Eliasson M. Cardiovascular risk factors differ between rural and urban Sweden: the 2009 Northern Sweden MONICA cohort. BMC Public Health. 2014;14:825.
Donatiello E, Russo MD, Formisano A, Lauria F, Nappo A, Reineke A, et al. Physical activity, adiposity and urbanization level in children: results for the Italian cohort of the IDEFICS study. Public Health. 2013;127(8):761–5.
Carson V, Iannotti RJ, Pickett W, Janssen I. Urban and rural differences in sedentary behavior among American and Canadian youth. Health Place. 2011;17(4):920–8.
Regis MF, Oliveira LMFT, Santos ARM, Leonidio ACR, Diniz PRB, Freitas CMSM. Urban versus rural lifestyle in adolescents: associations between environment, physical activity levels and sedentary behavior. Einstein (São Paulo). 2016;14(4):461–7.
Singh AP, Misra G. Adolescent lifestyle in India: prevalence of risk and promotive factors of health. Psychol Dev Soc. 2012;24(2):145–60.
Dong B, Wang Z, Ma J. Urban–rural disparity in blood pressure among Chinese children: 1985–2010. Eur J Public Health. 2015;26(4):569–75.
SarrafZadegan N, AminiNik S. Blood pressure pattern in urban and rural areas in Isfahan. Iran J Hum Hypertens. 1997;11(7):425–8.
Asgari F, Mirzazadeh A, Heidarian H. Iran non-communicable diseases risk factors surveillance data book National NCD Risk Factors Surveillance Committee; 2007.
Esteghamati A, Etemad K, Koohpayehzadeh J, Abbasi M, Meysamie A, Khajeh E, et al. Awareness, treatment and control of pre-hypertension, and hypertension among adults in Iran. Arch Iran Med. 2016;19(7):456–64.
Esteghamati A, Khalilzadeh O, Rashidi A, Kamgar M, Meysamie A, Abbasi M. Physical activity in Iran: results of the third national surveillance of risk factors of non-communicable diseases (SuRFNCD-2007). J Phys Act Health. 2011;8(1):27–35.
Falkner B, Daniels SR, Flynn JT, Gidding S, Green LA, Ingelfinger JR, et al. The fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2004;114(2 III):555–76.
Flynn JT, Kaelber DC, Baker-Smith CM, Blowey D, Carroll AE, Daniels SR, et al. Clinical practice guideline for screening and management of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2017;140(3):e20171904.
Fallah Z, Qorbani M, Motlagh ME, Heshmat R, Ardalan G, Kelishadi R. Prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents: the CASPIAN-IV study. Int J Prev Med. 2014;5(Suppl 1):S57.
Kelishadi R, Ardalan G, Gheiratmand R, Majdzadeh R, Delavari A, Heshmat R, et al. Blood pressure and its influencing factors in a national representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents: the CASPIAN study. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2006;13(6):956–63.
Ostchega Y, Carroll M, Prineas RJ, McDowell MA, Louis T, Tilert T. Trends of elevated blood pressure among children and adolescents: data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1988–2006. Am J Hypertens. 2009;22(1):59–67.
Kit BK, Kuklina E, Carroll MD, Ostchega Y, Freedman DS, Ogden CL. Prevalence of and trends in dyslipidemia and blood pressure among US children and adolescents, 1999-2012. JAMA Pediatr. 2015;169(3):272–9.
Liang Y-J, Xi B, Hu Y-H, Wang C, Liu J-T, Yan Y-K, et al. Trends in blood pressure and hypertension among Chinese children and adolescents: China Health and Nutrition Surveys 1991–2004. Blood Press. 2011;20(1):45–53.
Dong Y, Ma J, Song Y, Dong B, Wang Z, Yang Z, et al. National blood pressure reference for Chinese Han children and adolescents aged 7 to 17 Years. Hypertension. 2017. https://doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.117.09983.
Rosner B, Cook NR, Daniels S, Falkner B. Childhood blood pressure trends and risk factors for high blood pressure: the NHANES experience 1988-2008. Hypertension. 2013;62(2):247–54.
Dong B, Wang HJ, Wang Z, Liu JS, Ma J. Trends in blood pressure and body mass index among Chinese children and adolescents from 2005 to 2010. Am J Hypertens. 2013;26(8):997–1004.
Kelishadi R, Heshmat R, Farzadfar F, Motlag ME, Bahreynian M, Safiri S, et al. Prevalence of cardio-metabolic risk factors in a nationally representative sample of Iranian adolescents: the CASPIAN-III study. J Cardiovasc Thorac Res. 2017;9(1):12.
Payab M, Kelishadi R, Qorbani M, Motlagh ME, Ranjbar SH, Ardalan G, et al. Association of junk food consumption with high blood pressure and obesity in Iranian children and adolescents: the CASPIAN-IV study. J Pediatr. 2015;91(2):196–205.
Azizi-Soleiman F, Motlagh ME, Qorbani M, Heshmat R, Ardalan G, Mansourian M, et al. Dietary habits and health related behaviors in Iranian children and adolescents: the CASPIAN-IV study. Int J Pediatr. 2016;4(7):2087–97.
Ochoa-Avilés A, Andrade S, Huynh T, Verstraeten R, Lachat C, Rojas R, et al. Prevalence and socioeconomic differences of risk factors of cardiovascular disease in Ecuadorian adolescents. Pediatr Obes. 2012;7(4):274–83.
Mbowe O, Diaz A, Wallace J, Mazariegos M, Jolly P. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and associated cardiovascular risk factors in Guatemalan school children. Matern Child Health J. 2014;18(7):1619–27.
Yamamoto-Kimura L, Posadas-Romero C, Posadas-Sánchez R, Zamora-González J, Cardoso-Saldaña G, Ramírez IM. Prevalence and interrelations of cardiovascular risk factors in urban and rural Mexican adolescents. J Adolesc Health. 2006;38(5):591–8.
Su Z, Cheng H, Zhao D, Duan J, Wang L, Hou D, et al. Dietary habits of school-age children and its associations with blood pressure level in Beijing, China. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2014;48(5):340–4.
Johnson Iii JA, Johnson AM. Urban-rural differences in childhood and adolescent obesity in the United States: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Child Obes. 2015;11(3):233–41.
Rahmanian M, Kelishadi R, Qorbani M, Motlagh ME, Shafiee G, Aminaee T, et al. Dual burden of body weight among Iranian children and adolescents in 2003 and 2010: the CASPIAN-III study. Arch Med Sci. 2014;10(1):96.
Kelishadi R, Qorbani M, Motlagh ME, Ardalan G, Heshmat R, Hovsepian S. Socioeconomic disparities in dietary and physical activity habits of Iranian children and adolescents: the Caspian-IV study; 2016.
Liu J-H, Jones SJ, Sun H, Probst JC, Merchant AT, Cavicchia P. Diet, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors as risk factors for childhood obesity: an urban and rural comparison. Child Obes. 2012;8(5):440–8.
Lutfiyya MN, Lipsky MS, Wisdom-Behounek J, Inpanbutr-Martinkus M. Is rural residency a risk factor for overweight and obesity for US children? Obesity. 2007;15(9):2348–56.
Joens-Matre RR, Welk GJ, Calabro MA, Russell DW, Nicklay E, Hensley LD. Rural–urban differences in physical activity, physical fitness, and overweight prevalence of children. J Rural Health. 2008;24(1):49–54.
Davis A, Boles R, James R, Sullivan D, Donnelly J, Swirczynski D, et al. Health behaviors and weight status among urban and rural children. Rural Remote Health. 2008;8(2):810.
Wang Y, Monteiro C, Popkin BM. Trends of obesity and underweight in older children and adolescents in the United States, Brazil, China, and Russia. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;75(6):971–7.
Amiri P, Ghofranipour F, Ahmadi F, Hosseinpanah F, Montazeri A, Jalali-Farahani S, et al. Barriers to a healthy lifestyle among obese adolescents: a qualitative study from Iran. Int J Public Health. 2011;56(2):181–9.
Allafi A, Al-Haifi AR, Al-Fayez MA, Al-Athari BI, Al-Ajmi FA, Al-Hazzaa HM, et al. Physical activity, sedentary behaviours and dietary habits among Kuwaiti adolescents: gender differences. Public Health Nutr. 2014;17(9):2045–52.
Al-Hazzaa HM, Abahussain NA, Al-Sobayel HI, Qahwaji DM, Musaiger AO. Physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents relative to age, gender and region. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2011;8(1):140.