Whitacre CC. Sex differences in autoimmune disease. Nat Immunol. 2001;2:777–80.
Kvarnstrom M, Ottosson V, Nordmark B, Wahren-Herlenius M. Incident cases of primary Sjogren's syndrome during a 5-year period in Stockholm County: a descriptive study of the patients and their characteristics. Scand J Rheumatol. 2015;44:135–42.
Brandt JE, Priori R, Valesini G, Fairweather D. Sex differences in Sjogren's syndrome: a comprehensive review of immune mechanisms. Biol Sex Differ. 2015;6:19.
Lessard CJ, Li H, Adrianto I, et al. Variants at multiple loci implicated in both innate and adaptive immune responses are associated with Sjogren's syndrome. Nat Genet. 2013;45:1284–92.
Imgenberg-Kreuz J, Sandling JK, Almlöf JC, Nordlund J, Signér L, Norheim KB, Omdal R, Rönnblom L, Eloranta ML, Syvänen AC, Nordmark G. Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis in multiple tissues in primary Sjögren's syndrome reveals regulatory effects at interferon-induced genes. Ann Rheum Dis. 2016;75(11):2029–36. doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2015-208659.
Cutolo M, Capellino S, Sulli A, et al. Estrogens and autoimmune diseases. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1089:538–47.
Liu K, Kurien BT, Zimmerman SL, et al. X chromosome dose and sex bias in autoimmune diseases: increased prevalence of 47,XXX in systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjogren's syndrome. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2016;68:1290–300.
Harris VM, Sharma R, Cavett J, et al. Klinefelter's syndrome (47,XXY) is in excess among men with Sjogren's syndrome. Clin Immunol. 2016;168:25–9.
Boodhoo KD, Liu S, Zuo X. Impact of sex disparities on the clinical manifestations in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2016;95:e4272.
Voulgari PV, Katsimbri P, Alamanos Y, Drosos AA. Gender and age differences in systemic lupus erythematosus. A study of 489 Greek patients with a review of the literature. Lupus. 2002;11:722–9.
Andrade RM, Alarcon GS, Fernandez M, et al. Accelerated damage accrual among men with systemic lupus erythematosus: XLIV. Results from a multiethnic US cohort. Arthritis Rheum. 2007;56:622–30.
Manger K, Manger B, Repp R, et al. Definition of risk factors for death, end stage renal disease, and thromboembolic events in a monocentric cohort of 338 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann Rheum Dis. 2002;61:1065–70.
Tremlett H, Paty D, Devonshire V. Disability progression in multiple sclerosis is slower than previously reported. Neurology. 2006;66:172–7.
Marrie RA, Patten SB, Tremlett H, et al. Sex differences in comorbidity at diagnosis of multiple sclerosis: a population-based study. Neurology. 2016. [Epub ahead of print]
Weyand CM, Schmidt D, Wagner U, Goronzy JJ. The influence of sex on the phenotype of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 1998;41:817–22.
Gossec L, Baro-Riba J, Bozonnat MC, et al. Influence of sex on disease severity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol. 2005;32:1448–51.
Gondran G, Fauchais A, Lambert M, et al. Primary Sjogren's syndrome in men. Scand J Rheumatol. 2008;37:300–5.
Horvath IF, Szodoray P, Zeher M. Primary Sjogren's syndrome in men: clinical and immunological characteristic based on a large cohort of Hungarian patients. Clin Rheumatol. 2008;27:1479–83.
Ramirez Sepulveda JI, Kvarnstrom M, Brauner S, Baldini C, Wahren-Herlenius M. Difference in clinical presentation between women and men in incident primary Sjogren's syndrome. Biol Sex Differ. 2017;8:16.
Vitali C, Bombardieri S, Jonsson R, et al. Classification criteria for Sjogren's syndrome: a revised version of the European criteria proposed by the American-European Consensus Group. Ann Rheum Dis. 2002;61:554–8.
Sakiani S, Olsen NJ, Kovacs WJ. Gonadal steroids and humoral immunity. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2013;9:56–62.
Garcia-Carrasco M, Mendoza-Pinto C, Jimenez-Hernandez C, et al. Serologic features of primary Sjogren's syndrome: clinical and prognostic correlation. Int J Clin Rheumtol. 2012;7:651–9.
Klein SL, Jedlicka A, Pekosz A. The Xs and Y of immune responses to viral vaccines. Lancet Infect Dis. 2010;10:338–49.
Furman D. Sexual dimorphism in immunity: improving our understanding of vaccine immune responses in men. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2015;14:461–71.
Klein SL, Marriott I, Fish EN. Sex-based differences in immune function and responses to vaccination. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2015;109:9–15.
Boitiaux JF, Debray MP, Nicaise-Roland P, et al. Idiopathic interstitial lung disease with anti-SSA antibody. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2011;50:2245–50.
Ghillani P, Andre C, Toly C, et al. Clinical significance of anti-Ro52 (TRIM21) antibodies non-associated with anti-SSA 60kDa antibodies: results of a multicentric study. Autoimmun Rev. 2011;10:509–13.
Singh AG, Singh S, Matteson EL. Rate, risk factors and causes of mortality in patients with Sjogren's syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2016;55:450–60.
Mira-Avendano IC, Abril A. Pulmonary manifestations of Sjogren syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, and mixed connective tissue disease. Rheum Dis Clin N Am. 2015;41:263–77.
Flament T, Bigot A, Chaigne B, et al. Pulmonary manifestations of Sjogren's syndrome. Eur Respir Rev. 2016;25:110–23.
Yazisiz V, Arslan G, Ozbudak IH, et al. Lung involvement in patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome: what are the predictors? Rheumatol Int. 2010;30:1317–24.
Johannson KA, Balmes JR, Collard HR. Air pollution exposure: a novel environmental risk factor for interstitial lung disease? Chest. 2015;147:1161–7.
Ley B, Collard HR, King TE Jr. Clinical course and prediction of survival in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;183:431–40.
Hopkins RB, Burke N, Fell C, Dion G, Kolb M. Epidemiology and survival of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis from national data in Canada. Eur Respir J. 2016;48:187–95.
Kassan SS, Thomas TL, Moutsopoulos HM, et al. Increased risk of lymphoma in sicca syndrome. Ann Intern Med. 1978;89:888–92.
Theander E, Henriksson G, Ljungberg O, et al. Lymphoma and other malignancies in primary Sjogren's syndrome: a cohort study on cancer incidence and lymphoma predictors. Ann Rheum Dis. 2006;65:796–803.
Dias C, Isenberg DA. Susceptibility of patients with rheumatic diseases to B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2011;7:360–8.
Nishishinya MB, Pereda CA, Munoz-Fernandez S, et al. Identification of lymphoma predictors in patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Rheumatol Int. 2015;35:17–26.
Ansell P, Simpson J, Lightfoot T, et al. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma and autoimmunity: does gender matter? Int J Cancer. 2011;129:460–6.
Mellemkjaer L, Pfeiffer RM, Engels EA, et al. Autoimmune disease in individuals and close family members and susceptibility to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;58:657–66.
Smedby KE, Askling J, Mariette X, Baecklund E. Autoimmune and inflammatory disorders and risk of malignant lymphomas--an update. J Intern Med. 2008;264:514–27.
Fallah M, Liu X, Ji J, et al. Hodgkin lymphoma after autoimmune diseases by age at diagnosis and histological subtype. Ann Oncol. 2014;25:1397–404.
Nocturne G, Mariette X. Sjogren syndrome-associated lymphomas: an update on pathogenesis and management. Br J Haematol. 2015;168:317–27.
Merrill SJ, Mu Y. Thyroid autoimmunity as a window to autoimmunity: an explanation for sex differences in the prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity. J Theor Biol. 2015;375:95–100.
Lu MC. Yin WY, Tsai TY, Koo M. Lai NS Increased risk of primary Sjogren's syndrome in female patients with thyroid disorders: a longitudinal population-based study in Taiwan PLoS One. 2013;8:e77210.
Mavragani CP, Fragoulis GE, Moutsopoulos HM. Endocrine alterations in primary Sjogren's syndrome: an overview. J Autoimmun. 2012;39:354–8.
Appenzeller S, Pallone AT, Natalin RA, Costallat LT. Prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in systemic lupus erythematosus. J Clin Rheumatol. 2009;15:117–9.
Jara LJ, Navarro C, Brito-Zeron Mdel P, et al. Thyroid disease in Sjogren's syndrome. Clin Rheumatol. 2007;26:1601–6.
Seror R, Bootsma H, Saraux A, et al. Defining disease activity states and clinically meaningful improvement in primary Sjogren's syndrome with EULAR primary Sjogren's syndrome disease activity (ESSDAI) and patient-reported indexes (ESSPRI). Ann Rheum Dis. 2016;75:382–9.