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Table 3 Frequency of pSS-associated clinical manifestations and comorbidities in female and male patients with pSS

From: Long-term follow-up in primary Sjögren’s syndrome reveals differences in clinical presentation between female and male patients

  Women n = 899% (frequency) Men n = 68% (frequency) p value
Classificationa    
Articular    
 Arthritis 20% (169/859) 14% (9/65) 0.25
Pulmonary    
 Interstitial lung disease 6% (40/619) 17% (8/48) 0.008
Renal    
 Interstitial nephritis 3% (19/607) 2% (1/48) 1.00
Cutaneous    
 Dermal vasculitis 11% (91/836) 8% (5/62) 0.49
Lymphadenopathy and lymphoma    
 Enlarged lymph nodes 8% (69/825) 16% (10/62) 0.04
 Lymphoma 4% (32/889) 10% (7/68) 0.007
Muscular    
 Myositis 0.9% (7/772) 3% (2/61) 0.14
Glandular    
 Major salivary gland swelling 29% (225/767) 40% (21/53) 0.11
Presence of EGM 34% (304/899) 41% (28/68) 0.22
Number of EGM (mean + SD) 0.44 ± 0.69 0.51 ± 0.74 0.30
Other common comorbidities and clinical manifestations    
 Hypothyroidism 24% (175/739) 8% (4/51) 0.009
 Raynaud’s phenomenon 29% (247/851) 30% (20/66) 0.83
  1. Italicized values indicate statistically significant findings (p < 0.05)
  2. aAvailable data on the extraglandular manifestations evaluated to estimate the EULAR Sjögren’s Syndrome Disease Activity Index (ESSDAI) are included
  3. EGM extraglandular manifestations