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  1. Content type: Review

    Most writing on sexual differentiation of the mammalian brain (including our own) considers just two organs: the gonads and the brain. This perspective, which leaves out all other body parts, misleads us in se...

    Authors: Geert J. de Vries and Nancy G. Forger

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2015 6:15

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  2. Content type: Research

    Mechanistic data to support health claims is often generated using rodent models, and the influence of prebiotic supplementation has largely been evaluated using male rodents. Given that sex-based differences ...

    Authors: Padmaja Shastri, Justin McCarville, Martin Kalmokoff, Stephen P.J. Brooks and Julia M. Green-Johnson

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2015 6:13

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) occur predominately in males. However, AAAs in females have rapid growth rates and rupture at smaller sizes. Mechanisms contributing to AAA progression in females are undefine...

    Authors: Sean E. Thatcher, Xuan Zhang, Shannon Woody, Yu Wang, Yasir Alsiraj, Richard Charnigo, Alan Daugherty and Lisa A. Cassis

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2015 6:12

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  4. Content type: Research

    DNA methylation, which is most frequently the transference of a methyl group to the 5-carbon position of the cytosine in a CpG dinucleotide, plays an important role in both normal development and diseases. To ...

    Authors: Masatoshi Inoshita, Shusuke Numata, Atsushi Tajima, Makoto Kinoshita, Hidehiro Umehara, Hidenaga Yamamori, Ryota Hashimoto, Issei Imoto and Tetsuro Ohmori

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2015 6:11

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  5. Content type: Research

    Sex differences in incidence of cardiovascular disease may reflect age-associated intravascular cellular activation resulting in shedding of cell membrane-derived bioactive microvesicles (MV or microparticles)...

    Authors: Callie M Gustafson, Alex J Shepherd, Virginia M Miller and Muthuvel Jayachandran

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2015 6:10

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  6. Content type: Research

    Sex differences in pituitary growth hormone (GH) are well documented and coordinate maturation and growth. GH and its receptor are also produced in the brain where they may impact cognitive function and synapt...

    Authors: Kayla M Quinnies, Paul J Bonthuis, Erin P Harris, Savera RJ Shetty and Emilie F Rissman

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2015 6:8

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  7. Content type: Research

    In mammals, white adipose tissue (WAT) stores fat and brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates fat to produce heat. Several studies showed that females have more active BAT. Members of the bone morphogenetic prot...

    Authors: Aldo Grefhorst, Johanna C van den Beukel, E Leonie AF van Houten, Jacobie Steenbergen, Jenny A Visser and Axel PN Themmen

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2015 6:7

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  8. Content type: Review

    It is now becoming widely recognized that there are important sex differences in disease. These include rates of disease incidence, symptoms and age of onset. These differences between the sexes can be seen as...

    Authors: Edward H Morrow

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2015 6:5

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  9. Content type: Research

    Differences in expression of drug transporters in human kidney contribute to changes in pharmacokinetics and toxicokinetics of a variety of drug compounds. The basal expression levels of genes involved in drug...

    Authors: Stancy Joseph, Tamara J Nicolson, George Hammons, Beverly Word, Bridgett Green-Knox and Beverly Lyn-Cook

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2015 6:4

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  10. Content type: Review

    During early development, testosterone plays an important role in sexual differentiation of the mammalian brain and has enduring influences on behavior. Testosterone exerts these influences at times when the t...

    Authors: Melissa Hines, Mihaela Constantinescu and Debra Spencer

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2015 6:3

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  11. Content type: Research

    The lifetime incidence of kidney stones is about two times greater in men compared to women. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) shed from activated cells are present in the urine and may reflect or even mediate rena...

    Authors: Muthuvel Jayachandran, Ghiara Lugo, Hillary Heiling, Virginia M Miller, Andrew D Rule and John C Lieske

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2015 6:2

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  12. Content type: Research

    Growing evidence suggests that epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation may play a role in susceptibilities to specific toxicities and adverse drug reactions. MiRNAs in particular have been shown to be importa...

    Authors: Joshua C Kwekel, Vikrant Vijay, Varsha G Desai, Carrie L Moland and James C Fuscoe

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2015 6:1

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  13. Content type: Research

    Human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs) are widely used to study the endothelial physiology and pathology that might be involved in sex and gender differences detected at the cardiovascular level. This stud...

    Authors: Roberta Addis, Ilaria Campesi, Marco Fois, Giampiero Capobianco, Salvatore Dessole, Grazia Fenu, Andrea Montella, Maria Grazia Cattaneo, Lucia M Vicentini and Flavia Franconi

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2014 5:18

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  14. Content type: Research

    Most animal species exhibit sexually dimorphic behaviors, many of which are linked to reproduction. A number of these behaviors, including blood feeding in female mosquitoes, contribute to the global spread of...

    Authors: Michael Tomchaney, Keshava Mysore, Longhua Sun, Ping Li, Scott J Emrich, David W Severson and Molly Duman-Scheel

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2014 5:10

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  15. Content type: Research

    Supernumerary sex chromosome aneuploidies (sSCA) are characterized by the presence of one or more additional sex chromosomes in an individual’s karyotype; they affect around 1 in 400 individuals. Although ther...

    Authors: Benjamin SC Wade, Shantanu H Joshi, Martin Reuter, Jonathan D Blumenthal, Arthur W Toga, Paul M Thompson and Jay N Giedd

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2014 5:16

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  16. Content type: Review

    In May of 2014, the NIH Director together with the Director of the Office of Research on Women’s Health announced plans to take a multi-dimensional approach to address the over reliance on male cells and anima...

    Authors: Louise D McCullough, Geert J de Vries, Virginia M Miller, Jill B Becker, Kathryn Sandberg and Margaret M McCarthy

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2014 5:15

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  17. Content type: Research

    Joint diseases such as osteoarthritis (OA) predominantly afflict post-menopausal women, suggesting a pertinent role for female hormones. Estrogen receptor beta (ER-β) has been detected in connective tissues of...

    Authors: John D Thaler, Yamini Achari, Ting Lu, Nigel G Shrive and David A Hart

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2014 5:14

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  18. Content type: Research

    The pressor response to angiotensin II (AngII) is attenuated in adult females as compared to males via an angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R)-dependent pathway. We hypothesized that adult female mice are protected...

    Authors: Katrina M Mirabito, Lucinda M Hilliard, Geoffrey A Head, Robert E Widdop and Kate M Denton

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2014 5:13

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  19. Content type: Research

    There is increasing appreciation for sexually dimorphic effects, but the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are only partially understood. In the present study, we explored transcriptomics and epige...

    Authors: Wilma T Steegenga, Mona Mischke, Carolien Lute, Mark V Boekschoten, Maurien GM Pruis, Agnes Lendvai, Henkjan J Verkade, Jos Boekhorst, Harro M Timmerman, Torsten Plösch and Michael Müller

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2014 5:11

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  20. Content type: Research

    Biologic sex can influence response to pharmacologic therapy. The purpose of this proof-of-concept study was to evaluate the medicating effects of estrogen in the efficacy of acute antiplatelet loading therapy...

    Authors: Dawn M Meyer, Jo-Ann Eastwood, M Peggy Compton, Karen Gylys and Justin A Zivin

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2014 5:9

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  21. Content type: Research

    The biological basis for sex differences in brain function and disease susceptibility is poorly understood. Examining the role of gonadal hormones in brain sexual differentiation may provide important informat...

    Authors: Negar M Ghahramani, Tuck C Ngun, Pao-Yang Chen, Yuan Tian, Sangitha Krishnan, Stephanie Muir, Liudmilla Rubbi, Arthur P Arnold, Geert J de Vries, Nancy G Forger, Matteo Pellegrini and Eric Vilain

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2014 5:8

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  22. Content type: Database

    Searches for sex and gender-specific publications are complicated by the absence of a specific algorithm within search engines and by the lack of adequate archives to collect the retrieved results. We previous...

    Authors: Sabine Oertelt-Prigione, Björn-Oliver Gohlke, Mathias Dunkel, Robert Preissner and Vera Regitz-Zagrosek

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2014 5:7

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  23. Content type: Review

    Large-scale gene dose reductions usually lead to abnormal phenotypes or death. However, male mammals, Drosophila, and Caenorhabditis elegans have only one X chromosome and thus can be considered as monosomic for ...

    Authors: Zhen-Xia Chen, Kseniya Golovnina, Hina Sultana, Satish Kumar and Brian Oliver

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2014 5:5

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  24. Content type: Research

    Multiple sclerosis (MS), a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, is one of the most prevalent neurological disorders in the industrialized world. This disease afflicts more than two million peop...

    Authors: Elizabeth J Rahn, Tommaso Iannitti, Renee R Donahue and Bradley K Taylor

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2014 5:4

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  25. Content type: Research

    An increasing body of evidence indicates that left ventricular (LV) remodeling, especially the degree of reactive myocardial hypertrophy after myocardial infarction (MI), differs in males and females. Surprisi...

    Authors: Eduard I Dedkov, Kunal Oak, Lance P Christensen and Robert J Tomanek

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2014 5:1

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  26. Content type: Research

    There is a significant body of evidence to suggest that hormone levels, receptor density and structural differences between males and females can significantly alter renal hemodynamics. We compared the renal h...

    Authors: Hayley Dickinson, Karen M Moritz and Michelle M Kett

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2013 4:21

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  27. Content type: Research

    Studies on major depressive and anxiety disorders suggest dysfunctions in brain corticolimbic circuits, including altered gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and modulatory (serotonin and dopamine) neurotransmissio...

    Authors: Marianne L Seney, Kokomma I Ekong, Ying Ding, George C Tseng and Etienne Sibille

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2013 4:20

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  28. Content type: Research

    A majority of autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), occur predominantly in females. Recent studies have identified specific dysregulated microRNAs (miRNAs) in both human and murine...

    Authors: Rujuan Dai, Savannah McReynolds, Tanya LeRoith, Bettina Heid, Zhihong Liang and Sattar Ansar Ahmed

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2013 4:19

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  29. Content type: Research

    The male brain is putatively organised early in development by testosterone, with the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the medial preoptic area (SDN) a main exemplifier of this. However, pubescent neurogenesis oc...

    Authors: Walter Wittmann and Ian S McLennan

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2013 4:18

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  30. Content type: Research

    Activating KRAS and BRAF mutations predict unresponsiveness to EGFR-targeting therapies in colorectal cancer (CRC), but their prognostic value needs further validation. In this study, we investigated the impac...

    Authors: Sakarias Wangefjord, Magnus Sundström, Nooreldin Zendehrokh, Kajsa Ericson Lindquist, Björn Nodin, Karin Jirström and Jakob Eberhard

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2013 4:17

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  31. Content type: Review

    This review discusses sex differences in the prognosis of acute or chronic inflammatory diseases. The consequences of severe inflammation vary in relation to sex, depending on illness duration. In the majority...

    Authors: Georges J Casimir, Nicolas Lefèvre, Francis Corazza and Jean Duchateau

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2013 4:16

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  32. Content type: Research

    Klinefelter syndrome (KS), caused by XXY karyotype, is characterized by low testosterone, infertility, cognitive deficits, and increased prevalence of health problems including obesity and diabetes. It has bee...

    Authors: Xuqi Chen, Shayna M Williams-Burris, Rebecca McClusky, Tuck C Ngun, Negar Ghahramani, Hayk Barseghyan, Karen Reue, Eric Vilain and Arthur P Arnold

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2013 4:15

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  33. Content type: Research

    The kidney functions in key physiological processes to filter blood and regulate blood pressure via key molecular transporters and ion channels. Sex-specific differences have been observed in renal disease inc...

    Authors: Joshua C Kwekel, Varsha G Desai, Carrie L Moland, Vikrant Vijay and James C Fuscoe

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2013 4:14

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  34. Content type: Research

    Human and animal studies support the idea that there are sex differences in the development of diabetic renal disease. Our lab and others have determined that in addition to Ang II (through the AT1R), growth horm...

    Authors: Jennifer L Whitney, Christine Maric Bilkan, Kathryn Sandberg, Adam K Myers and Susan E Mulroney

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2013 4:12

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  35. Content type: Review

    Research conducted to date has deepened our understanding of sex and gender differences in the etiology, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes for many conditions that affect both women and men. The Sex and Gende...

    Authors: Alyson J McGregor, Kimberly Templeton, Mary Rojek Kleinman and Marjorie R Jenkins

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2013 4:11

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  36. Content type: Research

    Women and men have diverse responses to many infectious diseases. These differences are amplified following menopause. However, despite extensive information regarding the effects of sex hormones on immune cel...

    Authors: Sumathi Sankaran-Walters, Monica Macal, Irina Grishina, Lauren Nagy, Larissa Goulart, Kathryn Coolidge, Jay Li, Anne Fenton, Theodore Williams, Mary K Miller, Jason Flamm, Thomas Prindiville, Michael George and Satya Dandekar

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2013 4:10

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  37. Content type: Research

    Anecdotal and clinical theories purport that females are more responsive to smoking cues, yet few objective, neurophysiological examinations of these theories have been conducted. The current study examines th...

    Authors: Reagan R Wetherill, Kimberly A Young, Kanchana Jagannathan, Joshua Shin, Charles P O’Brien, Anna Rose Childress and Teresa R Franklin

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2013 4:9

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  38. Content type: Review

    Depression is a common mental disorder that co-occurs in other neurological and somatic diseases. Further, sex differences exist in the prevalence rates of many of these diseases, as well as within non-disease...

    Authors: Christina L Nemeth, Constance S Harrell, Kevin D Beck and Gretchen N Neigh

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2013 4:8

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  39. Content type: Research

    Saliva has been advocated as an alternative to serum or plasma for steroid monitoring. Little normative information is available concerning expected concentrations of the major reproductive steroids in saliva ...

    Authors: Elizabeth Hampson, Shauna-Dae Phillips, Claudio N Soares and Meir Steiner

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2013 4:7

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  40. Content type: Review

    Understanding the biology of sex differences is integral to personalized medicine. Cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline are two related conditions, with distinct sex differences in morbidity and clinic...

    Authors: Virginia M Miller, Vesna D Garovic, Kejal Kantarci, Jill N Barnes, Muthuvel Jayachandran, Michelle M Mielke, Michael J Joyner, Lynne T Shuster and Walter A Rocca

    Citation: Biology of Sex Differences 2013 4:6

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