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Table 1 Differentially expressed circulating miRNAs in gestational diabetes mellitus and their effects in heart disease

From: Pregnancy-associated cardiac dysfunction and the regulatory role of microRNAs

miRNARegulation in human pregnancyRef.Heart diseaseMechanism and outcomeRef.
miR-125b-5p↑ serum in first trimester,
normalizes in second and third
[138]Mouse LAD ligation↓ bak1, ↓ klf13 →
↓ cardiomyocyte apoptosis
[139]
miR-183-5p↑ serum, first trimester
↓ serum, third trimester
[138]Rat cardiac IRI↓ VDAC1 → ↓ apoptosis[140]
miR-200b-3p↑ serum, first trimester
↓ serum, third trimester
[138]Mouse STZ-induced diabetic cardiomyopathy↓ CD36, ↓ EndoMT →
↓ cardiac fibrosis
↓ cardiac dysfunction
[141, 142]
miR-21-3p↑ plasma[143, 144]Mouse TAC and Ang II infusion↓HDAC8 expression + Akt/Gsk3β signaling→
↓ cardiac hypertrophy
[145]
miR-195-5p↑ plasma[146]Mouse STZ-induced diabetic cardiomyopathy↓ miR-195-5p → ↑ Bcl-2, ↑ sirtuin 1 → ↓ cardiac hypertrophy, ↓ ROS, ↓ apoptosis, ↑ myocardial capillary density, ↑coronary blood flow[147]
Rat cardiomyocytes↓ miR-195-5p → ↑ SGK1 → rescues hERG potassium ion channel deficiency[148]
miR-29a↓ serum[149]Zucker diabetic fatty rats↓ miR-29a → ↓ mcl-1[150]
Rat myocardial cells stimulated with high glucose↓ IGF-1 → ↑ apoptosis[151]
miR-222↓ serum[149]Mice with diabetic cardiomyopathy↓ Wnt/ β-catenin signaling →
↓ EndoMT → ↓ cardiac fibrosis, ↑ cardiac function
[152]
IRI in cardiomyocyte-specific miR-222 OE mice↓ p27/HIPK1/Hmbox-1 →
↑ growth/proliferation,
↓ apoptosis
[152]
miR-222 OE in mice↓ p27 → ↑ mTOR signaling, ↓ autophagy → ↑ hypertrophy, ↑ fibrosis, ↑ dysfunction with age[153]
  1. Akt/Gsk3β protein kinase B/glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta, Ang II angiotensin II, bak1 Bcl2 homologous antagonist/killer, Bcl-2 B cell lymphoma 2, CD36 cluster of differentiation 36, EndoMT endothelial to mesenchymal transition, HDAC8 histone deacetylase 8, hERG human Ether-a-go-go-Related Gene, HIPK1 homeodomain interacting protein kinase 1, Hmbox-1 homeobox containing 1, I/R ischemia/reperfusion, IGF-1 insulin-like growth factor 1, IRI ischemia/reperfusion injury, klf13 kruppel-like factor 13, LAD left anterior descending, Mcl-1 myeloid cell leukemia 1, MI myocardial infarction, miR microRNA, mTOR mammalian target of rapamycin, OE overexpression, ROS reactive oxygen species, SGK1 serum/glucocorticoid regulated kinase 1, STZ streptozotocin, TAC transverse aortic constriction, VDAC1 voltage-dependent anion-selective channel 1, Wnt wingless-related integration site