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Fig. 1 | Biology of Sex Differences

Fig. 1

From: Estrous cycle influences excitatory amino acid transport and visceral pain sensitivity in the rat: effects of early-life stress

Fig. 1

Early-life stress and estrous cycle-dependent variations in visceral sensitivity. Maternally separated (MS) animals exhibit visceral hypersensitivity with a significantly lower threshold of visceral distension required for identifiable abdominal contraction (a) and increased total pain behaviors (b) compared to non-separated controls (NS) (**p < 0.01 non-sep vs mat-sep, ## p < 0.01, #### p < 0.0001 vs met/die non-sep, n = 9–10/group)

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