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Table 1 Properties of Included Studies

From: Menstrual hormone-induced cyclic thumb CMC instability and degeneration in women: a systematic review

Author, year


Study type

Subject number (%F)

Mean age (years)

Subject factor(s) of interest

Interventions and/or information collected

Outcome variable(s)

Clifton et al. 2014

Detection of relaxin receptor in the dorsoradial ligament, synovium, and articular cartilage of the trapeziometacarpal joint

Prospective Cohort

15 (67%)

F 59 (44–79), M 67 (56–79)

Undergoing TMC arthroplasty

Collection of intraoperative tissue samples

Immunostaining for relaxin receptor in dorsoradial ligaments and synovium

Em et al. 2015

Serum relaxin levels in benign hypermobility syndrome

Prospective Case Control

88 (100%); 48 BJHS and 40 control

BJHS 25.2 + 6.6, control 25.4 + 7.1

Women diagnosed with benign joint hypermobility syndrome by the research team

Assessment for hypermobility (via Beighton, Brighton), serum relaxin levels

Average luteal SRC in women with BJHS vs. controls (all female); the presence of specific musculoskeletal pathologies in each group

Lubahn et al. 2006

Immunohistochemical detection of relaxin binding to the volar oblique ligament

Prospective cohort study

8 (100%)

Specified only as peri- or premenopausal

Non-menopausal women undergoing TMC arthroplasty, reconstruction of FCR

Collection of intraoperative tissue samples

Presence of relaxin receptors in volar oblique ligament

Pokorny et al. 2000

Self-reported oral contraceptive use and peripheral joint laxity

Prospective Cohort

55 (100%); 25 control and 30 test

Range 20–25

Women aged 20–25 on low-dose OCPs for 3 + months (test group) or not taking contraceptives for 3 + months (control group)

Passive anterior translation of tibia, 5th DIP hyperextension, and 2nd PIP abduction/adduction

Laxity of knee and hand between oral contraceptive users and non-users

Wolf et al. 2012

Serum relaxin is correlated with relaxin receptors and MMP-1 in the anterior oblique ligament

Prospective Cohort

49 (61%)

62 (43–78)

Patients undergoing TMC arthroplasty, trapeziectomy, and ligament reconstruction

Preoperative Beighton laxity score and serum relaxin level, intraoperative tissue sampling

Serum relaxin levels and relaxin receptor concentration in the anterior oblique ligament, relationship between MMP-1/MMP-13 and relaxin receptor location

Wolf, et al. 2013

Relationship of serum relaxin to generalized and trapezial–metacarpal Joint laxity

Prospective Cohort

289 (53%)

47 (18–91)

Healthy volunteers

Screening for hypermobility (Beighton), TMC stress X-rays, SRC testing

Serum relaxin levels and the effect on generalized and trapezial–metacarpal joint laxity