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Table 1 The effects of sex and CKD on various in vivo left ventricular morphological and cardiac functional parameters

From: Ischemic preconditioning protects the heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury in chronic kidney disease in both males and females

Parameter (unit) Male Female p-value
Sham CKD Sham CKD CKD vs. sham Female vs. male
IWTs (mm) 3.07 ± 0.09 3.48 ± 0.21 3.31 ± 0.11 3.67 ± 0.14 0.051 0.373
IWTd (mm) 1.86 ± 0.18 2.42 ± 0.33* 1.72 ± 0.23 2.03 ± 0.09* 0.011 0.066
PWTs (mm) 3.00 ± 0.10 3.42 ± 0.24 3.24 ± 0.12 3.54 ± 0.18 0.089 0.602
PWTd (mm) 1.74 ± 0.05 2.23 ± 0.25* 1.82 ± 0.06 1.97 ± 0.14 0.038 0.203
SWTs (mm) 3.26 ± 0.11 3.98 ± 0.21* 3.32 ± 0.08 3.63 ± 0.12*  < 0.001 0.074
SWTd (mm) 2.02 ± 0.10 2.52 ± 0.18* 1.69 ± 0.08# 1.88 ± 0.07# 0.006  < 0.001
LVEDD (mm) 6.73 ± 0.17 6.50 ± 0.36 6.20 ± 0.14 6.41 ± 0.11 0.547 0.761
LVESD (mm) 3.51 ± 0.17 2.92 ± 0.37 2.15 ± 0.19# 2.07 ± 0.15# 0.182 0.011
Heart rate (1/min) 363 ± 6 347 ± 14 370 ± 12 379 ± 10 0.479 0.045
LVEDV (μL) 102 ± 6 75 ± 6* 89 ± 9 99 ± 6# 0.029 0.031
LVESV (μL) 33 ± 4 26 ± 3 36 ± 4 39 ± 3# 0.377 0.021
SV (μL) 70 ± 4 49 ± 5* 53 ± 6 60 ± 4 0.011 0.120
CO (mL/min) 25 ± 1 17 ± 2* 19 ± 2# 23 ± 1* 0.003 0.013
SBP (mmHg) 111 ± 6 120 ± 4 126 ± 6# 136 ± 8# 0.117 0.017
DBP (mmHg) 87 ± 5 94 ± 4 98 ± 7# 107 ± 8# 0.215 0.048
  1. Transthoracic echocardiographic and blood pressure measurements were performed 8 and 9 weeks after 5/6 nephrectomy, respectively. Values are mean ± SEM, n = 10–15 for echocardiography (sham male: n = 15, CKD male: n = 11, sham female: n = 10, and CKD female: n = 13), and n = 6–11 for blood pressure measurement (sham male: n = 10, CKD male: n = 11, sham female: n = 6, and CKD female: n = 8), *p < 0.05, CKD vs. sham-operated groups, #p < 0.05, females vs. males; p-values refer to two-way ANOVA (Holm–Sidak post hoc test). CKD chronic kidney disease, CO cardiac output, d diastolic, DBP diastolic blood pressure, E-wave early ventricular filling velocity, e' e'-wave, mitral annulus velocity measured by tissue Doppler, IWT inferior wall thickness, LVEDD left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, LVEDV left ventricular end-diastolic volume, LVESD left ventricular end-systolic diameter, LVESV left ventricular end-systolic volume, PWT posterior wall thickness, s systolic, SBP systolic blood pressure, SV stroke volume, SWT septal wall thickness