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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of male and female participantsa

From: Sex difference in the association between plasma selenium and first stroke: a community-based nested case-control study

Characteristics Total Male Female P value
N n = 2510 n=1242 n = 1268  
Age, years 70.8 ± 8.1 71.4 ± 8.1 70.1 ± 8.0 < 0.001
BMI, kg/m2 26.2 ± 4.1 25.3 ± 3.6 27.0 ± 4.4 < 0.001
Current smoking, n (%) 551 (22.0) 547 (44.0) 4 (0.3) < 0.001
Current alcohol drinking, n (%) 612 (24.4) 599 (48.2) 13 (1.0) < 0.001
Baseline SBP, mmHg 153.3 ± 23.1 150.8 ± 22.3 155.7 ± 23.6 < 0.001
Baseline DBP, mmHg 85.3 ± 12.3 86.2 ± 12.5 84.3 ± 12.0 < 0.001
Self-reported hypertension, n (%) 1312 (52.3) 553 (44.5) 759 (59.9) < 0.001
Self-reported diabetes, n (%) 424 (16.9) 161 (13.0) 263 (20.7) < 0.001
Self-reported hyperlipidemia, n (%) 264 (10.5) 108 (8.7) 156 (12.3) 0.003
Self-reported atrial fibrillation, n (%) 46 (1.8) 26 (2.1) 20 (1.6) 0.335
Hypertension, n (%)b 2016 (80.3) 940 (75.7) 1076 (84.9) < 0.001
Labor intensity, n (%)     < 0.001
 Mild 1885 (75.1) 887 (71.4) 998 (78.7)  
 Moderate 488 (19.4) 280 (22.5) 208 (16.4)  
 Severe 137 (5.5) 75 (6.0) 62 (4.9)  
Medication use, n (%)
 Anti-platelet drugs 83 (3.3) 47 (3.8) 36 (2.8) 0.186
 Lipid-lowering drugs 44 (1.8) 15 (1.2) 29 (2.3) 0.039
 Glucose-lowering drugs 301 (12.0) 112 (9.0) 189 (14.9) < 0.001
 Anti-hypertensive drugs 1152 (45.9) 476 (38.3) 676 (53.3) < 0.001
Laboratory results
 TC, mmol/L 5.9 ± 1.2 5.6 ± 1.1 6.1 ± 1.3 < 0.001
 TG, mmol/L 1.4 ± 0.9 1.2 ± 0.7 1.6 ± 0.9 < 0.001
 HDL-C, mmol/L 1.6 ± 0.4 1.6 ± 0.4 1.6 ± 0.4 0.558
 Glucose, mmol/L 6.3 ± 2.3 6.1 ± 2.1 6.4 ± 2.5 < 0.001
 tHcy, μmol/L 13.9 ± 7.2 15.3 ± 8.6 12.5 ± 5.0 < 0.001
 eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m2 92.5 ± 14.4 92.3 ± 15.1 92.7 ± 13.8 0.428
 Vitamin E, μg/mL 14.0 ± 4.0 12.9 ± 3.3 15.2 ± 4.3 < 0.001
 Selenium, ng/mL 87.2 ± 18.6 87.7 ± 18.6 86.8 ± 18.6 0.230
  1. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, TC total cholesterol, TG triglycerides, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, tHcy total homocysteine, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate
  2. aVariables are presented as the mean ± SD or n (%)
  3. bHypertension was defined as a self-reported history of hypertension, use of anti-hypertensive drugs, SBP ≥ 140 mmHg, or DBP ≥ 90 mmHg