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Table 1 Baseline characteristics in patients by sex and in the total population studied

From: Acute kidney injury is more common in men than women after accounting for socioeconomic status, ethnicity, alcohol intake and smoking history

Parameter Total population Male Female P
N 3534 1878 1656 -
Age (years) 60.7 ± 18.8 61.1 ± 17.8 60.3 ± 20.0 0.18
Ethnicity
 White (n, %) 3016 (85.3) 1589 (84.6) 1427 (86.2) 0.49
 Black (n, %) 103 (2.9) 55 (2.9) 48 (2.9)
 Asian (n, %) 338 (9.6) 188 (10.0) 150 (9.1)
 Other (n, %) 77 (2.2) 46 (2.4) 31 (1.9)
Index of multiple deprivation
 1 1571 (44.5%) 815 (43.4%) 756 (45.7%) 0.15
 2 703 (19.9%) 366 (19.5%) 337 (20.4%)
 3 662 (18.7%) 363 (19.3%) 299 (18.1%)
 4–5 268 (7.6%) 157 (8.4%) 111 (6.7%)
Height (m) 1.65 ± 0.12 1.71 ± 0.10 1.57 ± 0.10 < 0.001
Weight (kg) 77.29 ± 20.74 81.77 ± 19.28 72.18 ± 21.16 < 0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 27.16 [8.50] 27.05 [7.50] 27.39 [9.90] 0.03
Diabetes (n, %) 677 (19.2) 389 (20.7) 288 (17.4) 0.01
Hypertension (n, %) 1327 (37.5) 751 (40.0) 576 (34.8) 0.001
Coronary Heart Disease (n, %) 430 (12.2) 300 (16.0) 130 (7.9) < 0.001
Stroke (n, %) 127 (3.6) 63 (3.4) 64 (3.9) 0.42
Peripheral Vascular Disease (n, %) 168 (4.8) 120 (6.4) 48 (2.9) < 0.001
Heart Failure (n, %) 318 (9.0) 188 (10.0) 130 (7.9) 0.02
Renal Disease (n, %) 160 (4.5) 92 (4.9) 68 (4.1) 0.25
Liver Disease (n, %) 39 (1.1) 24 (1.3) 15 (0.9) 0.29
Pulmonary Disease (n, %) 860 (24.3) 380 (20.2) 480 (29.0) < 0.001
Malignancy (n, %) 440 (12.5) 295 (15.7) 145 (8.8) < 0.001
Charlson Comorbidity Index 1.14 ± 1.50 1.22 ± 1.59 1.05 ± 1.37 0.021
Smoking
 Current 921 (26.1%) 520 (27.7%) 401 (24.2%) < 0.001
 Ex-smoker 1286 (36.4%) 777 (41.4%) 509 (30.7%)
Alcohol
 Moderate consumption (n, %) 779 (22.0) 547 (29.1) 232 (14.0) < 0.001
 Higher consumption (n, %) 430 (12.2) 312 (16.6) 118 (7.1)
Antihypertensive drugs (n, %) 1642 (46.5) 914 (48.7) 728 (44.0) 0.002
 ACEI (n, %) 698 (19.8) 428 (22.8) 270 (16.3) < 0.001
 ARB (n, %) 285 (8.1) 152 (8.1) 133 (8.0) 0.90
 CCB (n, %) 595 (16.8) 344 (18.3) 251 (15.2) 0.02
 Diuretics (n, %) 710 (20.1) 341 (18.2) 369 (22.3) 0.002
 Beta-blockers (n, %) 569 (16.1) 353 (18.8) 216 (13.0) < 0.001
 Alpha1-blockers (n, %) 194 (5.5) 149 (7.9) 45 (2.7) < 0.001
Statins (n, %) 430 (12.2) 249 (13.3) 181 (10.9) 0.06
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (n, %) 109 (3.1) 54 (2.9) 55 (3.3) 0.47
Proton-pump inhibitors or histamine H2-receptor antagonists (n, %) 943 (26.7) 488 (26.0) 455 (27.5) 0.57
Haloperidol (n, %) 78 (2.2) 35 (1.9) 43 (2.6) 0.18
e-GFR (ml/min/1.73m2) 86.71 [36.59] 86.20 [35.94] 87.39 [37.32] 0.08
Creatinine (μmol/l) 74.00 [31.00] 83.00 [33.00] 64.50 [24.00] < 0.001
Urea (mmol/l) 6.90 [4.20] 7.10 [4.00] 6.50 [4.40] < 0.001
Sodium (mmol/l) 138.00 [4.00] 138.00 [4.00] 138.00 [4.00] 0.12
Potassium (mmol/l) 4.20 [0.60] 4.30 [0.60] 4.20 [0.60] < 0.001
Haemoglobin (g/l) 125.00 [30.00] 129.00 [31.00] 120.00 [28.00] < 0.001
Anaemia (n, %) 1730 (49.0) 937 (49.9) 793 (47.9) 0.267
  1. ACEI, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors; ARB, angiotensin receptor blockers, BMI, body mass index; CCB, calcium channel blockers; IMD, index of multiple deprivation
  2. Normally distributed variables are presented as mean ± standard deviation, non-normally distributed variables as median (interquartile range) and categorical variables as absolute frequency (proportion)