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Table 2 Traits affected by food restriction (FR) or protein restriction (PR) throughout gestation in rats

From: Sex-dependent effects of prenatal food and protein restriction on offspring physiology in rats and mice: systematic review and meta-analyses

Study Na Manipulation Traits affected in males Traits affected in females Traits affected in both sexes Analysed sexes separately or tested interaction
Wistar rats
 Howie 2012 [43] 6 FR (50%) Insulin:leptin ratio; blood lipids; hepatic; spleen Hepatic Birthweight; body weight; fat; bone; leptin; blood lipids Sexes separately
 Ozaki 2001 [44] 10–11 FR (70%) Cardiovascular Cardiovascular Cardiovascular Sexes separately
 Peiris 2010 [45] ? FR (30%) Insulin Fat Body weight Interaction
 Sánchez-Garrido 2013 [46] ? FR (70%) Body weight; insulind Body weight; insulind Birthweight; FSH Sexes separately
 Alwasel 2009 [20] ? PR (9% vs 18%) None None Cardiovascular; renal Interaction
 Bellinger 2006b [22] 8–11 PR (9% vs 18%) Body weight; fat Fat; behavioural None Interaction
 Cooke 2014c [24] 6 PR (8% vs 20%) Renal Renal Foetal weight; renal Sexes separately
 Elmes 2007 [26] 8 PR (9% vs 18%) Cardiovascular None Cardiovascular Interaction
 Elmes 2009 [27] 6 PR (9% vs 18%) Cardiovasculare Cardiovasculare Cardiovascular Interaction
 Kwong 2006b [28] 11–13 PR (9% vs 18%) None None None Not clear
Kwong 2007b [29] 11–13 PR (9% vs 18%) Hepatic None None Sexes separately
 Langley-Evans 1997 [30] 3 PR (9% vs 18%) Lung; renal; brain None Body weight; cardiovascular Sexes separately
 Langley-Evans 2005 [31] 7 PR (9% vs 18%) Hepatic None None Interaction
 Langley-Evans 2006 [32] 5–8 PR (9% vs 18%) None Placental weight; hepatic Placental weight Interaction
 Mallinson 2007b [33] 11–13 PR (9% vs 18%) Muscular None None Interaction
 McMullen 2005 [34] 6 PR (9% vs 18%) None Cardiovascular; renal Cardiovascular Interaction
 McMullen 2005 [35] 10–11 PR (9% vs 18%) None Renal Renal Interaction
 Theys 2009 [38] 7 PR (8% vs 20%) Blood lipids; pancreatic Pancreatic; hepatic Birthweight; pancreatic Interaction
 Torrens 2009 [39] 6–7 PR (9% vs 18%) Cardiovascular; blood inflammatory markers None Cardiovascular Sexes separately
 Vega 2016 [40] 6 PR (10% vs 20%) Placental; foetal hepatice; blood lipids; hepatic Placental; foetal hepatice; fat; hepatic Foetal weight; foetal:placental ratio; placental; foetal hepatic; hepatic; leptin; corticosterone; insulin Sexes separately
 Ye 2018 [41] 7–10 PR (10% vs 20%) None Brain; behavioural None Interaction
 Zambrano 2006 [42] 4–6 PR (10% vs 20%) Leptin; glucose; blood lipids Birthweight; fat Insulin Sexes separately
Sprague-Dawley rats
 Gao 2012d [51] 10 PR (6% vs 20%) Placental Placental Foetal weight; placental weight; placental Interaction
 Gao 2012d [52] 10 PR (6% vs 20%) Placental Placental Foetal weight; placental Interaction
 Sathishkumar 2012 [53] 8–9 PR (6% vs 20%) Cardiovascular Cardiovascular Cardiovascular Sexes separately
 Woods 2004b [54] 6–9 PR (5% vs 19%) Body weight; renal None Body weight; cardiovascular; renal Sexes separately and interaction
 Woods 2005 [55] 13–16 PR (9% vs 19%) Renal None Birthweight Sexes separately
  1. aSample size is provided as the number of dams per group (? = not stated)
  2. bStudy also manipulated diet during various periods of gestation. This table includes only results of manipulation throughout gestation
  3. cStudy also includes a group where manipulation continued through lactation. This table includes only results from dams collected during gestation
  4. dStudy collected at day 14 and 18 of gestation
  5. eManipulation had opposite effect in males and females for some traits