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Table 1 Studies in animal models and in humans on the effects of vitamin D in MS

From: The role of vitamin D in autoimmune diseases: could sex make the difference?

Studies in animal models Studies in humans
Inhibition of EAE-induction in female mice [79]
↓ demyelination [80]
↓ Th1, Th17 cells,
↑ Th2, Treg cells,
↑ IL-4, IL-10, TGF-β,
↓ IFN-γ, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-17 [80]
In vitro studies:
↓ T cells proliferation,
↓ IFN-γ, IL-17,
↑ IL-10 (higher effects in ♀ than in ♂) [51]
Clinical studies:
↓ relapse rate and inflammatory markers [82, 84, 85]
Improvement of MRI findings [83]
No improvement in MS outcomes [86,87,88,89,90,91,92]
  1. EAE Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, MRI Magnetic resonance imaging, MS Multiple sclerosis. ↓ indicates decrease, ↑ indicates increase