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Table 1 Characteristics (N [%]) of ACCESS and PRISM mother-child pairs included in analyses stratified by fetal sex

From: Fetal sex and maternal postpartum depressive symptoms: findings from two prospective pregnancy cohorts

  ACCESSa PRISMb
  All (N = 346) Male (N = 188) Female (N = 158) p valuec All (N = 528) Male (N = 273) Female (N = 255) p valuec
Maternal race/ethnicity     0.297     0.473
 White, non-Hispanic 30 (8.8) 14 (7.8) 16 (10.3)   102 (19.5) 56 (20.6) 46 (18.3)  
 Black/Hispanic-Black 95 (27.9) 59 (31.9) 36 (23.1)   200 (38.2) 102 (37.5) 98 (39.0)  
 Hispanic, non-Black 200 (58.7) 103 (55.7) 97 (62.2)   193 (36.9) 96 (35.3) 97 (38.7)  
 Others 16 (4.7) 9 (3.9) 7 (4.5)   28 (5.4) 18 (6.6) 10 (4.0)  
High school or more 218 (65.1) 128 (69.6) 90 (59.6) 0.057 400 (77.2) 217 (81.0) 183 (73.2) 0.035
Advanced maternal age (> 35 years) 40 (11.6) 23 (12.3) 17 (10.8) 0.672 103 (19.5) 44 (16.1) 59 (23.1) 0.042
Pre-pregnancy BMI > 24 kg/m2 217 (69.8) 116 (69.1) 101 (70.6) 0.762 278 (53.2) 142 (52.6) 136 (53.8) 0.790
Smoking during pregnancy 41 (11.9) 22 (11.7) 19 (12.1) 0.909 64 (12.1) 34 (12.5) 30 (11.8) 0.808
Married/living with partner 210 (61.8) 116 (62.3) 94 (61.0) 0.802 362 (69.4) 186 (69.1) 176 (69.6) 0.917
Nulliparous 146 (43.3) 80 (43.7) 66 (42.9) 0.874 160 (30.5) 90 (33.1) 70 (27.7) 0.178
Preterm 37 (10.8) 22 (11.8) 15 (9.5) 0.486 46 (8.7) 27 (9.9) 19 (7.5) 0.321
Breastfeed > 6 months 154 (63.6) 83 (63.9) 71 (63.4) 0.942 293 (56.7) 151 (56.8) 142 (56.6) 0.965
Perinatal depressionc     0.029     0.015
 No symptoms 228 (65.9) 122 (64.9) 106 (67.1)   390 (73.9) 194 (71.0) 196 (76.9)  
 Prenatal only 58 (16.8) 34 (18.1) 24 (15.2)   71 (13.5) 38 (13.9) 33 (12.9)  
 Postnatal only 27 (7.8) 20 (10.6) 7 (4.4)   24 (4.6) 20 (7.3) 4 (1.6)  
 Prenatal and postnatal 33 (9.5) 12 (6.4) 21 (13.3)   43 (8.1) 21 (7.7) 22 (8.6)  
  1. Abbreviations: ACCESS Asthma Coalition on Community Environment and Social Stress, BMI body mass index, EPDS Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale, PRISM PRogramming of Intergenerational Stress Mechanisms
  2. aACCESS (n missing): race/ethnicity (5), age (2), education (11), BMI (35), smoking (1), relationship status (6), parity (9), and breastfeeding (104)
  3. bPRISM (n missing): race/ethnicity (5), education (10), BMI (5), relationship status (6), parity (3), and breastfeeding (11)
  4. cp values are from chi-square tests of independence
  5. dDefined as an EPDS score > 10