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Table 2 In-hospital care and complications among dying individuals with COVID-19 according to sex

From: Sex differences in clinical phenotype and transitions of care among individuals dying of COVID-19 in Italy

  Overall (n = 3517) Women (n = 1171) Men (n = 2346) p value
Symptoms at admission, n (%)a
 Fever 2585 (76.3) 795 (71.3) 1790 (78.8) < 0.001
 Shortness of breath 2491 (73.6) 794 (71.2) 1697 (74.7) 0.031
 Cough 1315 (38.8) 402 (36.1) 913 (40.2) 0.020
 Diarrhea 193 (5.7) 72 (6.5) 121 (5.3) 0.63
 Hemoptysis 19 (0.6) 5 (0.4) 14 (0.6) 0.18
Time (in days) from symptoms’ onset to; median [IQR]b
 Hospital admission 4 [2–7] 4 [2–7] 5 [2–7] < 0.001
 In-hospital nasopharyngeal swab 5 [3–9] 5 [2–9] 6 [3–9] 0.007
 ICU 8 [5–12] 7 [4–12] 8 [5–12] 0.12
 In-hospital death 11 [7–17] 11 [7–16] 11 [7–17] 0.06
Length of stay (days), median [IQR]c 6 [3–11] 6 [3–11] 6 [3–11] 0.80
Admission in ICUd 667 (20.5) 149 (13.9) 518 (23.8) < 0.001
In-hospital complicationse
 Acute respiratory distress syndrome 3248 (96.9) 1077 (96.4) 2171 (97.2) 0.24
 Acute renal injury 741 (22.1) 187 (16.7) 554 (24.8) < 0.001
 Acute cardiac injury 368 (11.0) 101 (9.0) 267 (12.0) 0.012
 Co-infection 437 (13.0) 136 (12.2) 301 (13.5) 0.30
Shock 661 (19.7) 168 (15.0) 493 (22.1) < 0.001
In-hospital treatments, n (%)f
 Antibiotics 2908 (85.8) 941 (84.3) 1967 (86.5) 0.08
 Antivirals (including hydroxychloroquine) 2019 (59.6) 583 (52.2) 1436 (63.2) < 0.001
 Steroids 1293 (38.2) 414 (37.1) 879 (38.7) 0.39
 Tocilizumab 116 (3.9) 15 (1.5) 101 (5.1) < 0.001
  1. aMissing data: n = 52 (1.5%)
  2. bMissing data: n = 628 (18%, time to hospital admission); n = 465 (13%, time to death); 747 (21%, time to testing)
  3. cMissing data: n = 64 (1.8%, time to death)
  4. dMissing data: n = 265 (7.5%)
  5. eMissing data, n = 166 (4.7%)
  6. fMissing data, n = 128 (3.6%)