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Table 2 Interactive effects of asparagine and aspartate homeostasis with sex and age for T2D risk

From: Interactive effects of asparagine and aspartate homeostasis with sex and age for the risk of type 2 diabetes risk

  Univariable model    Multivariable model  
  OR (95% CI) P value   OR (95% CI) P value
Asn > 88 vs. ≤ 88, μmol/L 1.69 (1.38–2.08) < 0.0001   2.38 (1.77–3.21) < 0.0001
Asp < 65 vs. ≥ 65, μmol/L 11.7 (6.49–21.0) < 0.0001   6.33 (4.54–8.82) < 0.0001
Asn: Asp > 1.5 vs. ≤ 1.5 7.00 (5.27–9.30) < 0.0001   7.99 (5.50–11.6) < 0.0001
Age ≥ 50 vs. < 50 years old 4.62 (3.79–5.64) < 0.0001   3.96 (2.99–5.24) < 0.0001
Female vs. male 2.55 (2.12–3.06) < 0.0001   1.82 (1.38–2.42) < 0.0001
Additive interaction model of asparagine to aspartate ratio and age a
Asn: Asp ≤ 1.5 and age < 50 years old Reference    Reference  
Asn: Asp ≤ 1.5 and age ≥ 50 years old 4.99 (2.60–9.60) < 0.0001   3.43 (1.61–7.29) 0.0014
Asn: Asp > 1.5 and age < 50 years old 7.60 (4.16–13.9) < 0.0001   7.10 (3.60–14.0) < 0.0001
Asn: Asp > 1.5 and age ≥ 50 years old 37.0 (20.5–66.9) < 0.0001   28.7 (14.6–56.3) < 0.0001
Interaction measure Estimates    Estimates  
 RERI 25.4 (10.4–40.5)    19.2 (6.02–32.3)  
 AP 0.69 (0.62–0.76)    0.67 (0.57–0.77)  
 S 3.40 (2.64–4.39)    3.25 (2.32–4.55)  
Additive interaction model of asparagine to aspartate ratio and sex b
Asn: Asp ≤ 1.5 and male Reference    Reference  
Asn: Asp ≤ 1.5 and female 2.09 (1.22–3.56) 0.0070   1.49 (0.76–2.93) 0.2676
Asn: Asp > 1.5 and male 6.46 (4.34–9.62) < .0001   7.19 (4.41–11.7) < .0001
Asn: Asp > 1.5 and female 21.2 (14.0–32.2) < .0001   13.6 (8.10–22.9) < .0001
Interaction measure Estimates    Estimates  
 RERI 13.7 (7.48–19.9)    5.95 (1.60–10.3)  
 AP 0.64 (0.56–0.73)    0.44 (0.26–0.62)  
 S 3.09 (2.35–4.05)    1.89 (1.32–2.71)  
  1. Abbreviations: T2D type 2 diabetes, Asn asparagine, Asp aspartate, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, RERI risk due to interaction, AP attributable proportion due to interaction, S synergy index
  2. Multivariable analysis adjusted for body mass index (< 18.5, 18.5 ~ 24.0, 24.0 ~ 28.0 and ≥ 28.0 kg/m2), systolic blood pressure (< 140 and ≥ 140 mmHg), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (< 2.60 and ≥ 2.60 mmol/L), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (< 1.00 mmol/L in male or < 1.30 mmol/L in female as low level and ≥ 1.00 in male or ≥ 1.30 in female as high level), triglyceride (< 1.70 mmol/L and ≥ 1.70 mmol/L), and sex in a or age (< 50 and ≥ 50 years old) in b
  3. Significant elative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) > 0, attributable proportion due to interaction (AP) > 0 or synergy index (S) > 1 indicates a significant additive interaction
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