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Table 2 MRI measures.

From: Sex differences in brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis

MRI measures Healthy controls
Mean ± SD cc (n)
Multiple sclerosis
Mean ± SD cc (n)
Absolute difference cc Percent difference p value
q value
Hedge’s g
FreeSurfer thalamus
 Female 14.88 ± 1.10 (28) 13.91 ± 1.62 (52) − 0.98 − 6.8% p = 0.0021
q = 0.0070
g = 0.66
 Male 16.67 ± 0.98 (16) 15.24 ± 1.47 (37) − 1.43 − 9.0% p = 0.00015
q = 0.00075
g = 1.06
FreeSurfer putamen
 Female 9.50 ± 0.97 (28) 8.86 ± 1.17 (52) − 0.65 − 7.1% p = 0.010
q = 0.020
g = 0.58
 Male 11.44 ± 0.88 (16) 10.14 ± 1.26 (37) − 1.30 − 12.0% p = 0.00011
q = 0.00075
g = 1.12
Brain parenchymal fraction
 Female 1088.3 ± 93.9 (28) 1029.9 ± 85.8 (52) − 58.4 − 5.5% p = 0.0086
q = 0.020
g = 0.66
 Male 1235.8 ± 89.0 (17) 1180.8 ± 78.3 (37) − 55.0 -4.5% p = 0.037
q = 0.041
g = 0.67
Total gray matter
 Female 585.6 ± 51.1 (28) 555.6 ± 48.6 (52) − 30.0 − 5.2% p = 0.0139
q = 0.023
g = 0.61
 Male 658.0 ± 48.8 (17) 624.1 ± 46.6 (37) − 33.9 − 5.3% p = 0.0226
q = 0.028
g = 0.72
Total white matter
 Female 502.7 ± 52.1 (28) 474.3 ± 46.0 (52) − 28.4 − 5.8% p = 0.019
q = 0.027
g = 0.59
 Male 577.7 ± 53.7 (17) 556.7 ± 44.1 (37) − 21.1 − 3.7% p = 0.17
q = 0.17
g = 0.44
  1. FreeSurfer subcortical structure volumes and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and brain parenchymal fraction (BPF) volumes from female and male MS patients and healthy controls. ‡ p is the uncorrected p value, q is the p value adjusted for multiple comparisons by controlling the FDR, and g is the Hedge’s g value.