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Table 1 Summary of sex-biased PK measures and concordance with clinical ADRs

From: Sex differences in pharmacokinetics predict adverse drug reactions in women

WHO ATC category Druga PK measureb Female-biased ADRs Male-biased ADRs PK vs ADR
Alimentary tract, metabolism Liraglutide CLT headache, vomiting, nausea -- Concordant
Ranitidine AUC, Tmax -- Duodenal damage Concordant
Rosiglitazone CLT Fracture -- Concordant
Blood and blood forming organs Heparin CLT blood disorders, lymphatic disorders, bleeding (60 yoa) -- Concordant
Aspirin AUC, ClT, t1/2 elevated fibrinogen, CVD in T2D Bleeding Concordant
Warfarin CLT Bleeding -- Concordant
Clopidogrel AUC, Cmax fracture, bleeding, GI symptoms, IBD -- Concordant
Dabigatran AUC Bleeding -- Concordant
Cardiovascular system Torasemide AUC, Cmax, ClT,t1/2 Hospitalization -- Concordant
Pravastatin AUC, Cmax CHD -- Concordant
Amlodipine CLT Edema, flushing, palpitations -- Discordant
Digoxin CLT Mortality -- Concordant
Verapamil CLT Constipation, edema, fatigue, headache -- Concordant
Aliskiren AUC, Cmax Diarrhea -- Concordant
Losartan AUC, Cmax -- Angina, mortality Discordant
  Propranolol AUC, Cmax, ClT dizziness muscle pain headache dry mouth -- Concordant
Dofetilide SysExp TdP -- Concordant
Genito-urinary system, sex hormones Mirabegron AUC, Cmax, SysExp Treatment discontinuation (CAN), treatment discontinuation (CZE) Treatment discontinuation (UK) Concordant
Darifenacin AUC, Cmax, ClT F > M, ADRs not specified -- Concordant
Trospium AUC, Cmax Cognitive impairments -- Concordant
Systemic hormonal preparations Prednisone AUC, ClT Depression, fatigue, hair loss, mood swings, weight gain -- Concordant
Anti-infectives Levofloxacin ClT, SysExp Fluoroquinolone toxicity -- Concordant
Erythromycin CLT TdP -- Discordant
Voriconazole AUC, Cmax cardiac QTc symptoms -- Concordant
Antineoplastics, immunomodulators Cyclosporin CLT -- -- Discordant*
Fluorouracil AUC, ClT Stomatitis, leukopenia, alopecia, diarrhea, mucositis -- Concordant
Paclitaxel CLT Myocardial infarction, death, lesion revascularization -- Concordant
Capecitabine AUC Dose-limiting toxicity -- Concordant
Infliximab CLT Allergic reactions -- Concordant
Adalimumab CLT Allergic reactions -- Concordant
Anesthetics, analgesics Morphine CLT Respiratory depression, hypoxic sensitivity, emesis, nausea -- Concordant
Oxycodone CLT Nausea, pruritus, negative affect -- Concordant
Buprenorphine AUC, Cmax Sleep disturbance -- Concordant
Tramadol AUC, Cmax Treatment discontinuation -- Concordant
Zolmitriptan AUC, Cmax Face and neck presure -- Concordant
Ketamine ClT -- Verbal learning, subjective memory Concordant
Anti-epileptics, anti-Parkinson’s Carbamazepine ClT, t1/2 Cognitive impairment, elevated LDL/HDL -- Discordant
Gabapentin Cmax Dizziness, somnolescence, nausea -- Concordant
Perampanel AUC, ClT Dizziness, headache, treatment discontinuation -- Concordant
Pramipexole AUC, Cmax Nausea, fatigue -- Concordant
Psycholeptics Olanzapine CLT Severe weight gain   Concordant
Clozapine CLT Blood glucose, laxative use, obesity, type II diabetes, neutropenia, leukopenia, weight gain Hypertension, increases in BMI, elevated homocysteine, increased basal metabolic rate, increased plasma lipids, QTc symptoms, blood dyscrasias, myocarditis, cardiomyopathy Discordant
Risperidone CLT Hyperprolactinemia, neurological effects, headache, hypotension -- Concordant
Aripiprazol AUC, Cmax Blood pressure, heart rate, elongated QTc -- Concordant
Diazepam t1/2 Psychomotor impairment -- Concordant
Zolpidem AUC, Cmax, ClT Cognitive impairment, driving impairment -- Concordant
Eszopiclone AUC Dysgeusia -- Concordant
Psychoanaleptics Imipramine CLT Dry mouth, constipation, sweating, tremor, treatment discontinuation -- Concordant
Nortriptyline CLT Dry mouth -- Concordant
Fluoxetine CLT Hypercortisolemia, elevated albumin, elevated tryptophan, suicidal ideation -- Concordant
Citalopram CLT Elevated ADH -- Concordant
Sertraline AUC, ClT, t1/2 Cholesterol, nausea, dizziness, delusions Dyspepsia, sexual dysfunction, urinary frequency Concordant
Bupropion AUC, Cmax, t1/2 EEG abnormalities, seizure -- Concordant
Methylphenidate AUC Anxiety disorder -- Discordant
Antiparasitics Primaquine AUC, Cmax Nausea -- Concordant
Respiratory Terfenadine Cmax TdP -- Concordant
Fexofenadine AUC, Cmax Visual attention deficits, reaction time deficits, driving impairments -- Concordant
Miscellaneous MDMA CLT Elevated copeptin, hyponatremia -- Concordant
  Cannabis CLT Increased subjective emotional responses, problematic useintrovertive anhedonia -- Concordant
  1. PK abbreviations: AUC area under the curve, Cmax maximum circulating concentration, Tmax time required to reach Cmax value, t1/2 elimination half-life, ClT clearance time, exposure, or plasma concentration after a fixed time interval, SysExp systemic exposure
  2. *No evidence of sex differences in ADRs
  3. aFont style of drug name indicates direction of PK drug exposure bias: (normal font: F > M; bold font: M > F)
  4. bFont style of PK measure indicates direction of greater drug exposure (normal: F > M; bold: M > F)