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Table 1 Examples of pertinent findings of estrogen administration

From: Estrogen-related mechanisms in sex differences of hypertension and target organ damage

Effect Sample Reference
Increased baroreflex sensitivity Postmenopausal women [15]
Decreased renin levels & ACE activity Postmenopausal women [16, 17]
Increased eNOs & NO Human umbilical vein & bovine aorta endothelial cells [18]
Decreased sICAM1, VCAM1, IL-6 and plasma E-selectin Postmenopausal women [19]
Decreased left ventricular mass Postmenopausal women [20]
Decreased cardiomyocyte surface area Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes [21]
Accumulated nuclear phosphorylated protein kinase B Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes [22]
Decreased collagen; increased elastin Primary human aortic smooth muscle cells [23]
Increased leptin sensitivity; decreased insulin sensitivity Ovariectomized Long-Evans rats [24]
Decreased proteinuria, TGFB1 & PDGFA Ovariectomized Wistar rats [25]
  1. ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme, eNOs endothelial NO synthase, IL-6 interleukin-6, NO nitric oxide, PDGFA platelet-derived growth factor subunit A, sICAM1 soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1, TGFB1 transforming growth factor beta 1, VCAM1 vascular cell adhesion molecule 1