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Table 1 CD4 and CD8 T-cell immunophenotyping and their biological functions

From: Sex-related differences in markers of immune activation in virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients

HLA-DRCritical for efficient antigen presentation to CD4+ T cells.
HLA DR is expressed primarily by antigen presenting cells and, together with CD38, is a useful marker of T-cell activation following viral infection.
CD38Multifunctional ecto-enzyme involved in signal transduction, cell adhesion, and calcium signaling.
Used to study the processes of B- and T-cell differentiation and activation. Increased expression of CD38 on both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in HIV-infected patients is associated with disease progression.
CD27Important for the generation and long-term maintenance of immune response. Memory marker.
CD45RORegulator of T-cell antigen signaling.
Memory marker.
CD27+CD45RO-Naïve cells recognize cognate antigen and initiate an immune response.
CD27+CD45RO+Central memory (CM) T-cells are activated in secondary lymphoid organs following recognition of antigen on DCs and generate large numbers of effector cells.
CD27CD45RO+Effector memory (EM) cells exhibit effector function immediately upon recognition of antigen presented on non-professional APCs and limit the early spread of infection.