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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of the clusters in male population, Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (1999–2014)

From: Sex-specific clustering of metabolic risk factors and cancer risk: a longitudinal study in Iran

Variables Cluster 1
(n = 674)
Cluster 2
(n = 411)
Cluster 3
(n = 498)
Cluster 4
(n = 672)
Cluster 5
(n = 456)
Cluster 6
(n = 375)
Cluster 7
(n = 843)
*P value
Age (years) 53.5(12.4) 52.3(13.1) 52.4(14.2) 51.0(13.4) 42.4(9.8) 40.8(9.3) 43.6(11.5) < 0.001
Education
 Level 1 (0–8 years) 520(77.2) 324(78.8) 373(74.9) 507(75.4) 354(77.6) 291(77.6) 634(75.2) < 0.001
 Level 2 (9–12 years) 98(14.5) 54(13.1) 79(15.9) 113(16.8) 89(19.5) 78(20.8) 173(20.5)
 Level 3 (> 12 years) 56(8.3) 33(8.1) 46(9.2) 52(7.8) 13(2.9) 6(1.6) 36(4.3)
Physical activity level
 Low physical activity 490(72.7) 287(69.8) 326(65.5) 498(74.1) 343(75.2) 279(74.4) 627(74.4) 0.005
Smoking
 Never 291(43.2) 173(42.1) 207(41.6) 296(44.0) 161(35.3) 134(35.7) 256 (30.3) < 0.001
 Past 133(19.7) 77(18.7) 89(17.9) 125(18.6) 68(14.9) 48(12.8) 111(13.2)
 Passive 73 (10.8) 50(12.2) 59(11.8) 102(15.2) 66(14.5) 57(15.2) 95 (11.3)
 Current 177(26.3) 111(27.0) 143(28.7) 149(22.2) 161(35.3) 136(36.3) 381(45.2)  
BMI (kg/m2) 27.6(3.9) 26.7(4.1) 26.2(3.7) 27.1(3.8) 28.2(2.6) 27.9(2.2) 22.1(2.1) < 0.001
FPG (mmol/L) 7.4(2.7) 7.1(2.3) 4.9(0.3) 4.9(0.3) 4.9(0.4) 4.9(0.3) 4.8(0.3) < 0.001
TC (mmol/L) 6.2(0.8) 4.4(0.5) 4.4(0.5) 6.1(0.8) 6.0(0.8) 4.4(0.5) 4.9(1.0) < 0.001
SBP (mmHg) 130.2(21.2) 127.8(20.7) 135.8(16.3) 134.0(14.7) 109.2(6.7) 108.5(7.5) 106.4(8.2) < 0.001
Mean number of risk factors 3.4(0.7) 2.2(0.7) 1.6(0.5) 2.7(0.5) 2.0(0.0) 1.0(0.0) 0.4(0.4) < 0.001
HBMI 511(75.8) 277(67.4) 302(60.6) 486(72.3) 456(100) 375(100) 0(0.0) < 0.001
HSBP 450(66.8) 256(62.3) 498(100) 672(100) 0(0.0) 0(0.0) 0(0.0) < 0.001
HTC 674(100) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 672 (100) 456 (100) 0(0.0) 351(41.6) < 0.001
HFPG 674(100) 411(100) 0(0.0) 0(0.0) 0(0.0) 0(0.0) 0(0.0) < 0.001
Number of events 29 16 30 27 4 8 18  
Incident rate of cancers (CI), per 1000 person years 3.6(2.5–5.2) 3.4(2.0–5.5) 5.1(3.6–7.3) 3.2(2.2–4.7) 0.6(0.2–1.8) 1.7(0.8–3.5) 1.7(1.1–2.7)  
  1. Figures are presented as mean (standard deviation) for continuous variables, and number (percentage) for categorical variables
  2. CI confidence interval, HBMI high body mass index, HFPG high fasting plasma glucose, HTC high total cholesterol, HDL-C high systolic blood pressure
  3. *P values are based on ANOVA test for continuous variables and chi-square test for categorical variables