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Table 3 Regulatory interactions between the RAS and sex hormones

From: Sex differences in the metabolic effects of the renin-angiotensin system

RAS component Estrogen Androgen References
Angiotensinogen
 Preclinical [199,200,201,202]
 Clinical UNK [203,204,205]
Prorenin
 Preclinical UNK [206, 207]
 Clinical UNK [133]
Renin
 Preclinical - [201, 208, 209]
 Clinical, PRC UNK [133, 203, 205]
 Clinical, PRA UNK [204, 210, 211]
ACE
 Preclinical [208, 212, 213]
 Clinical [205, 214, 215]
Angiotensin II
 Preclinical ↑, ↓ - [208, 216, 217]
 Clinical UNK [204, 205, 211, 214]
AT1R
 Preclinical [212, 216, 218,219,220,221]
 Clinical UNK UNK  
AT2R
 Preclinical [219, 222, 223]
 Clinical UNK UNK  
Angiotensin-(1-7)
 Preclinical UNK [141, 208]
 Clinical UNK [171]
ACE2
 Preclinical - [141, 224, 225]
 Clinical UNK UNK  
Mas receptor
 Preclinical UNK UNK  
 Clinical UNK UNK  
Alamandine
 Preclinical UNK UNK  
 Clinical UNK UNK  
  1. ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme, ACE2 angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, AT1R angiotensin II type 1 receptor, AT2R angiotensin II type 2 receptor, PRA plasma renin activity, PRC plasma renin concentration, RAS renin-angiotensin system, ↑ increases, ↓ decreases, - neutral effects. UNK information unknown