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Fig. 2 | Biology of Sex Differences

Fig. 2

From: The role of the gut microbiome in sex differences in arterial pressure

Fig. 2

Mechanisms behind the relationship between the intestinal microbiome and hypertension. Gut dysbiosis (i.e. changes in prevalence of gut microbiota and alterations to the gut epithelial barrier) are characteristic of hypertension. This is modulated by diet, comorbidities, ageing and, likely, gender. Gut dysbiosis can lead to chronic low-grade inflammation, which can result in endothelial dysfunction, increased activity of the classic arm of the renin-angiotensin system and imbalanced salt regulation, contributing to a raise in blood pressure. Legend: RAS, renin-angiotensin system

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