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Fig. 7 | Biology of Sex Differences

Fig. 7

From: Production of amphiregulin and recovery from influenza is greater in males than females

Fig. 7

Testosterone and amphiregulin (AREG) independently protect against influenza A virus disease in males. Adult male wild-type mice (n = 10/treatment) were gonadectomized, treated with either placebo (Gdx) or testosterone (Gdx + T), inoculated intranasally with a low dose of 2009 H1N1 virus, monitored for changes in body mass (a), and euthanized at one of several time points to measure Areg mRNA (ΔΔCt; b) and protein (c) in the lungs. Adult male wild-type (Areg+/+) and Areg−/− mice (n = 12–15/treatment/genotype) were gonadectomized, treated with either placebo (−T) or testosterone (+T), infected with 2009 H1N1 virus, and monitored for changes in body mass for 14 days post-inoculation (dpi; d). Data represent means ± SEM from two independent experiments, and significant differences are represented by asterisks (*)

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