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Fig. 5 | Biology of Sex Differences

Fig. 5

From: Production of amphiregulin and recovery from influenza is greater in males than females

Fig. 5

Deletion of amphiregulin (Areg) eliminates sex differences in influenza A virus pathogenesis. Adult male and female Areg−/− and wild-type (Areg+/+) mice were inoculated intranasally with a low dose of 2009 H1N1 virus and euthanized at selected time points post-challenge. Areg−/− mice were monitored daily for changes in body mass for 21 days post-inoculation (dpi) (a n = 18–19/sex) and compared with their wild-type female (b) and male (c) counterparts (n = 10–19/sex/genotype). Infectious virus titers in the lungs of Areg−/− mice were measure at 5, 9, and 14 dpi (d n = 5–7/sex/time point), with the dotted line indicated the limit of detection (LOD) for the assay. Data represent means ± SEM from two independent experiments and significant differences are represented by asterisks (*)

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