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Fig. 2 | Biology of Sex Differences

Fig. 2

From: Sex differences in cardiovascular epigenetics—a systematic review

Fig. 2

Epigenetic mechanisms and sex. a The epigenetic mechanisms as set forth in the main text are schematically depicted here, with a legend on the right. b Possible ways in which sex influences epigenetic mechanisms. Higher expression of X-chromosomal genes that escape inactivation in women might influence epigenetic markers differently as compared to men. c The Y chromosome contains different epigenetic modifiers which might influence the autosome in men, but not in women. d Sex hormones and their receptors can influence the gene expression of epigenetic modifiers, as well as interact with epigenetic modifiers. e Genomic imprinting is an example in which sex influences DNA methylation, as particular maternal or paternal alleles are differentially methylated

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