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Table 2 Adjusted UBT values per thousand of H. pylori-infected patients according to baseline characteristics

From: Sex differences in urea breath test results for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection: a large cross-sectional study

  Estimate (95% CI)* Adjusted mean UBT value (95% CI)
Intercept 27.6 (26.5, 28.6) Overall 29.3 (29.0, 29.6)
Sexa
 Men 0 (reference) 24.9 (24.5, 25.3)
 Women 9.7 (9.0, 10.4) 33.8 (33.4, 34.1)
Age, yearsb
 25–34 0 (reference) 26.4 (26.1, 26.8)
 35–44 2.1 (1.5, 2.7) 29.2 (28.8, 29.6)
 45–54 3.4 (2.7, 4.0) 29.4 (29.0, 29.8)
 55–64 4.2 (3.3, 5.0) 30.1 (29.5, 30.6)
 65–95 5.8 (4.7, 6.9) 31.6 (30.9, 32.3)
SES of place of residencec
 1–5 (low SES) 0.8 (0.3, 1.3) 30.2 (29.8, 30.4)
 6–10 (intermediate–high SES) 0 (reference) 28.5 (28.1, 28.8)
BMI kg/m2d
 < 18.5 0 (reference) 33.5 (32.6, 34.5)
 18.5–24.9 − 2.8 (− 3.8, − 1.8) 30.7 (30.5, 31.0)
 25.0–29.9 − 5.5 (− 6.4, − 4.5) 28.1 (27.8, 28.4)
 ≥ 30 − 8.6 (− 9.6, − 7.6) 24.9 (24.6, 25.3)
Smokinge
 Unknown − 1.3 (− 1.9, − 0.7) 30.5 (30.1, 30.9)
 Ever − 4.6 (− 5.2, −4.0) 25.6 (25.1, 26.0)
 Never 0 (reference) 31.9 (31.6, 32.3)
  1. BMI body mass index, CI confidence intervals, DOB delta over baseline, UBT urea breath test, SES socioeconomic status
  2. *P < 0.001 for all variables was obtained in type III tests of fixed effects. Denominators: degree of freedom (df) of all variables was 68,699. Numerators: adf = 1, F = 1685.2; bdf = 4, F = 91.1, cdf = 2, F = 122.2; ddf = 4, F = 276.7; edf = 2, F = 414.7