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Table 5 Rationale for mentioning keywords

From: Inclusion of sex and gender in biomedical research: survey of clinical research proposed at the University of Pennsylvania

  Protocols studying topic with significant sex AND/OR gender differences n = 156 (%) Protocols studying topic with no or little evidence of sex or gender differences or have not been studied n = 84 (%)
Possible impact on primary outcomes 3 (1.9) 2 (2.4)
Rationale for choosing particular study population 7 (4.5) 17 (20.2)
Inclusion/exclusion criteria, reason not specified 5 (3.2) 4 (4.8)
Inclusion/exclusion criteria, regarding pregnancy 72 (46.2) 29 (34.5)
Stating the population that will be studied 46 (29.5) 16 (19.0)
Data that will be collected or recorded, reason not specified 5 (3.2) 3 (3.6)
Provides background 10 (6.4) 5 (6.0)
Other 7 (4.5) 5 (6.0)
  1. The 156 protocols represent those that focus on topics for which PubMed search indicates at least moderate sex difference, moderate gender difference, or both. Protocols rated “2” or higher (as described in Table 1) were considered to have moderate evidence