Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Clinical characteristics of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy stratified by sex

From: Sex-related differences in the associations between plasma free fatty acid levels and clinical features in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Variable Male (n = 243) Female (n = 169) p value
FFAs (mmol/L) 0.40 ± 0.18 0.45 ± 0.22 0.005
Age (years) 45.6 ± 11.9 51.0 ± 13.0 <0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 25.7 ± 3.2 24.6 ± 3.4 0.001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 119.0 ± 16.0 116.1 ± 18.0 0.088
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 70.0 (68.0–80.0) 70.0 (60.0–80.0) 0.026
Heart rate (beats/min) 70.0 (65.0–80.0) 70.0 (64.0–77.0) 0.073
NYHA functional class III or IV, n (%) 80 (32.9%) 65 (38.5%) 0.251
Chest pain, n (%) 107 (44.0%) 79 (46.7%) 0.615
Palpitation, n (%) 72 (29.6%) 63 (37.3%) 0.110
Family history of HCM, n (%) 36 (14.8%) 20 (11.8%) 0.465
Atrial fibrillation, n (%) 29 (11.9%) 25 (14.8%) 0.458
Risk factors for SCD
 Family history of SCD, n (%) 12 (4.9%) 8 (4.7%) 1.000
 Syncope, n (%) 64 (26.3%) 46 (27.2%) 0.910
 Maximum wall thickness ≥30 mm, n (%) 55 (22.6%) 18 (10.7%) 0.002
 Resting LVOTG ≥30 mmHg, n (%) 188 (79.7%) 147 (90.2%) 0.005
 Non-sustained VTa, n (%) 20 (12.6%) 18 (16.1%) 0.478
Cardiovascular risk
 Hypertension, n (%) 70 (28.8%) 59 (34.9%) 0.197
 Hyperlipidemia, n (%) 76 (31.3%) 54 (32.0%) 0.914
 Current smokers, n (%) 138 (56.8%) 5 (3.0%) <0.001
Laboratory test
 Cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.43 ± 0.99 4.63 ± 0.97 0.042
 LDL-C (mmol/L) 2.83 ± 0.86 2.89 ± 0.82 0.502
 HDL-C (mmol/L) 1.06 ± 0.30 1.27 ± 0.33 <0.001
 Triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.37 (1.00–1.97) 1.27 (0.95–1.77) 0.067
 NT-pro-BNP (pmol/L) 962 (518–1656) 1605 (956–2664) <0.001
Medications
 β-Blockers, n (%) 182 (74.9%) 124 (73.4%) 0.732
 Non-dihydropyridine CCB, n (%) 31 (12.8%) 32 (18.9%) 0.096
 Dihydropyridine CCB, n (%) 10 (4.1%) 9 (5.3%) 0.364
 ACEI/ARB, n (%) 27 (11.1%) 19 (11.2%) 1.000
 Aspirin, n (%) 42 (17.3%) 32 (18.9%) 0.697
 Statins, n (%) 26 (10.7%) 26 (15.7%) 0.176
 Diuretics, n (%) 6 (2.5%) 16 (9.5%) 0.003
 Trimetazidine, n (%) 10 (4.1%) 4 (2.4%) 0.415
  1. Data are expressed as mean ± SD, median (interquartile range), or number (percentage)
  2. ACEI angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin receptor blocker, BMI body mass index, CCB calcium channel blocker, HCM hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, LVOTG left ventricular outflow tract gradient, NT-proBNP N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, NYHA New York Heart Association, SCD sudden cardiac death, VT ventricular tachycardia
  3. aAmbulatory 24-h Holter monitoring data were obtained in 195 of the 412 study patients