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Fig. 2 | Biology of Sex Differences

Fig. 2

From: Male and female hypertrophic rat cardiac myocyte functional responses to ischemic stress and β-adrenergic challenge are different

Fig. 2

Basal sex differences in cardiomyocyte performance suppressed with hypertrophy. a Representative records of myocyte shortening in male and female NHR and HHR cardiomyocytes. bd Basal twitch amplitude (% shortening), maximum rate of shortening/lengthening are lower in female cardiomyocytes compared with males—an effect that is accentuated in NHR compared with HHR. e No sex difference was observed in Ca2+ transients, though a trend for lower Ca2+ transient amplitude was evident in female NHR cardiomyocytes (f). No sex difference was observed in cardiomyocyte diastolic Ca2+ levels or the time constant of Ca2+ transient decay (g, h). (*sex p < 0.05; p < 0.05; mean ± SEM; n = 8–13 cells from four to five hearts/group)

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