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Fig. 3 | Biology of Sex Differences

Fig. 3

From: Sex-related differences in pain behaviors following three early life stress paradigms

Fig. 3

ELS exposure leads to sexually dimorphic development of visceral hypersensitivity in adulthood. Maternal separation (n = 12–15) (a, b) and limited nesting (n = 12) (c, d) induce male-specific increases in the visceromotor response to colorectal distension in adult rats, **p < 0.01, ****p < 0.0001. Odor attachment learning (n = 9–13) (e, f) leads to female-specific visceral hypersensitivity in the unpredictable group, **p < 0.01

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