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Fig. 3 | Biology of Sex Differences

Fig. 3

From: Characterization of osteoarthritic human knees indicates potential sex differences

Fig. 3

Phenotypic characteristics of female and male primary chondrocytes isolated from osteoarthritic knees. Primary chondrocytes were isolated from minimally fibrillated or eroded cartilage surfaces. mRNAs for 1α,25(OH)2D3 (VDR (a) and PDIA3 (b)); estrogen receptors (ERα66 (c) and ERα36 (d)); interleukins (IL1A (e), IL1B (f), IL6 (g), IL8 (h), and IL10 (i)); and WNT signaling molecules (WNT3A (j), WNT5A (k), β-catenin [CTNNB] (l), DKK1 (m), and DKK2 (n)) were measured using real-time qPCR. Data are the mean levels from 6 males and 6 females. * p < 0.05 compared with minimal fibrillation; p < 0.05 compared with male

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