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Table 2 Glycemia and serum hormone and cytokine levels at postnatal days (PND) 10, 21, 30, 50, 85, and 150 in male (M) and female (F) rats raised in litters (L) 4 or 12 pups

From: Age and sex dependent effects of early overnutrition on metabolic parameters and the role of neonatal androgens

  Glucose (mg/dl) Insulin (ng/ml) HOMA Leptin (ng/ml) Adiponectin (ng/ml) Il1β (pg/ml) IL6 (pg/ml) TNFα (pg/ml)
ML12PND10d 114.4 ± 4.1 0.44 ± 0.07 3.2 ± 0.5 1.25 ± 0.21 21.5 ± 2.8 14.9 ± 3.1 126.1 ± 38.5 5.1 ± 0.3
ML4PND10d 130.9 ± 5.9a 0.92 ± 0.10a 7.7 ± 1.2a 2.61 ± 0.32a 40.0 ± 2.3a 5.1 ± 1.2 89.2 ± 44.6 3.4 ± 0.7a
FL12PND10d 121.6 ± 5.1 0.34 ± 0.02 2.4 ± 0.2 1.24 ± 0.16 17.5 ± 2.3 15.0 ± 4.1 16.4 ± 12.2 4.0 ± 0.6
FL4PND10d 135.8 ± 4.5a 0.60 ± 0.06 a, b 4.8 ± 0.5 a, b 2.40 ± 0.32a 41.9 ± 1.5a 7.9 ± 2.0 40.9 ± 29.7 1.3 ± 0.4a, b
ML12PND21d 103.6 ± 5.3 0.32 ± 0.05 2.1 ± 0.4 1.12 ± 0.18 27.6 ± 1.8 19.6 ± 6.8 56.5 ± 44.6 4.6 ± 1.0
ML4PND21d 131.7 ± 5.5 a 0.69 ± 0.24 5.4 ± 1.9a 1.80 ± 0.21a 31.9 ± 1.6 46.9 ± 11.3 85.6 ± 39.7 2.5 ± 1.2
FL12PND21d 109.3 ± 2.9 0.22 ± 0.04 1.5 ± 0.3 0.99 ± 0.22 30.3 ± 1.7 28.0 ± 9.4 60.4 ± 34.3 2.5 ± 0.8
FL4PND21d 125.6 ± 3.1 a 0.80 ± 0.16 6.0 ± 1.3a 1.91 ± 0.48a 43.9 ± 3.2 a, b 22.8 ± 3.7 112.1 ± 69.8 1.9 ± 0.6
ML12PND30 68.2 ± 2.9c 0.19 ± 0.03 0.8 ± 0.1c 0.43 ± 0.12 62.1 ± 6.0c 32.1 ± 8.0 76.2 ± 47.4 1.6 ± 0.4
ML4PND30 76.9 ± 4.7 c 0.23 ± 0.05 1.1 ± 0.2c 0.97 ± 0.44 58.4 ± 6.3c 61.3 ± 41.4 18.4 ± 14.4 2.0 ± 0.9
FL12PND30 72.7 ± 4.8 c 0.13 ± 0.01 0.6 ± 0.1c 0.71 ± 0.32 42.6 ± 3.0b 67.5 ± 29.0 86.5 ± 35.0 4.1 ± 1.3
FL4PND30 75.8 ± 4.0 c 0.57 ± 0.37 2.6 ± 1.8c 1.04 ± 0.54 54.2 ± 5.7 29.2 ± 13.6 78.3 ± 23.8 2.1 ± 0.7
ML12PND50 65.7 ± 3.3 0.89 ± 0.44 3.5 ± 1.8 0.96 ± 0.32 55.2 ± 4.2 10.6 ± 2.3 18.1 ± 17.5 BLD
ML4PND50 63.8 ± 3.8 0.73 ± 0.36 3.1 ± 1.7 0.69 ± 0.29 76.2 ± 5.9 a 20.9 ± 3.9 0.62 BLD
FL12PND50 63.8 ± 2.4 0.71 ± 0.31 2.6 ± 1.1 0.77 ± 0.29 62.2 ± 10.1 19.3 ± 8.9 17.7 ± 12.7 BLD
FL4PND50 69.7 ± 3.4 0.37 ± 0.07 1.6 ± 0.3 0.69 ± 0.31 60.9 ± 9.7 7.3 ± 2.4 22.1 ± 11.4 BLD
ML12PND85 68.8 ± 3.7 0.70 ± 0.18 3.1 ± 0.9 1.65 ± 0.20 71.6 ± 14.0 15.6 ± 5.5 5.6 ± 5.0 BLD
ML4PND85 61.0 ± 2.4 0.94 ± 0.37 3.5 ± 1.3 1.42 ± 0.21 78.0 ± 19.1 15.7 ± 6.6 13.5 ± 12.9 BLD
FL12PND85 73.3 ± 3.4 0.15 ± 0.03 0.7 ± 0.2 1.22 ± 0.44 108.2 ± 9.1 b 6.1 ± 2.1 4.6 ± 3.9 BLD
FL4PND85 66.3 ± 2.9 0.60 ± 0.22 2.2 ± 0.9 1.04 ± 0.18 105.2 ± 2.5 b 6.7 ± 2.1 BLD BLD
ML12PND150 85.7 ± 4.0c 3.46 ± 0.99c 13.5 ± 4.4c 3.89 ± 0.82c 87.0 ± 9.0 23.4 ± 9.6 14.5 ± 6.2 BLD
ML4PND150 78.4 ± 4.0c 2.82 ± 0.25c 12.1 ± 1.1 c 3.60 ± 0.88c 108.8 ± 7.3 35.3 ± 20.0 15.5 ± 3.6 BLD
FL12PND150 81.3 ± 8.7 1.03 ± 0.35c 3.8 ± 1.4b, c 2.32 ± 0.20b, c 106.1 ± 7.7 29.3 ± 26.4 16.4 ± 3.7 BLD
FL4PND150 84.9 ± 6.3c 1.55 ± 0.40c 6.1 ± 1.7b,c 2.57 ± 0.37b, c 86.4 ± 12.4 22.6 ± 8.0 19.1 ± 0.7 BLD
  1. N = 6–8 in each experimental group at each age
  2. HOMA homeostatic model assessment, BLD below limit of detection
  3. aDifferent from rats of same age and sex (litter size effect)
  4. bDifferent from males of same age and litter size
  5. cDifferent from preceding age (same sex and litter size)
  6. dNon-fasting samples
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