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Table 2 List of anthropometric measurements used in analysis

From: Using the 3D Facial Norms Database to investigate craniofacial sexual dimorphism in healthy children, adolescents, and adults

Measurement Region Landmarks involved Collection method
Maximum cranial width Head Right euryon (eu_r)—left euryon (eu_l) Spreading calipers
Minimum frontal width Head Right frontotemporale (ft_r)—left frontotemporale (ft_l) Spreading calipers
Maximum facial width Face Right zygion (zy_r)—left zygion (zy_l) Spreading calipers
Mandibular width Face Right gonion (go_r)—left gonion (go_l) Spreading calipers
Maximum cranial length Head Glabella (g)—opisthocranion (op) Spreading calipers
Cranial base width Head Right tragion (t_r)—left tragion (t_l) 3D Photogrammetry
Upper facial deptha Face Nasion (n)—left tragion (t_l) 3D Photogrammetry
Middle facial deptha Face Subnasale (sn)—left tragion (t_l) 3D Photogrammetry
Lower facial deptha Face Gnathion (gn)—left tragion (t_l) 3D Photogrammetry
Morphological facial height Face Nasion (n)—gnathion (gn) 3D Photogrammetry
Upper facial height Face Nasion (n)—stomion (sto) 3D Photogrammetry
Lower facial height Face Subnasale (sn)—gnathion (gn) 3D Photogrammetry
Intercanthal width Eye Right endocanthion (en_r)—left endocanthion (en_l) 3D Photogrammetry
Outercanthal width Eye Right exocanthion (ex_r)—left exocanthion (ex_l) 3D Photogrammetry
Palpebral fissure lengtha Eye Left endocanthion (en_l)—left exocanthion (ex_l) 3D Photogrammetry
Nasal width Nose Right alare (al_r)—left alare (al_l): 3D Photogrammetry
Subnasal width Nose Right subalare (sbal_r)—left subalare (sbal_l) 3D Photogrammetry
Nasal protrusion Nose Subnasale (sn)—pronasale (prn) 3D Photogrammetry
Nasal ala lengtha Nose Left alar curvature point (ac_l)—pronasale (prn) 3D Photogrammetry
Nasal height Nose Nasion (n)—subnasale (sn) 3D Photogrammetry
Nasal bridge length Nose Nasion (n)—pronasale (prn) 3D Photogrammetry
Labial fissure width Mouth Right chelion (ch_r)—left chelion (ch_l) 3D Photogrammetry
Philtrum width Mouth Right crista philtri (cph_r)—left crista philtri (cph_l) 3D Photogrammetry
Philtrum length Mouth Subnasale (sn)—labiale superius (ls) 3D Photogrammetry
Upper lip height Mouth Subnasale (sn)—stomion (sto) 3D Photogrammetry
Lower lip height Mouth Stomion (sto)—sublabiale (sl) 3D Photogrammetry
Upper vermilion height Mouth Labiale superius (ls)—stomion (sto) 3D Photogrammetry
Lower vermilion height Mouth Stomion (sto)—labiale inferius (li) 3D Photogrammetry
Cutaneous lower lip height Mouth Labiale inferius (li)—sublabiale (sl) 3D Photogrammetry
  1. Detailed descriptions of these measurements are available at the following link:
  2. aIndicates that only the left side of this bilateral measurement is included