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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of the obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients according to gender

From: Gender-related differences in the association between serum uric acid and left ventricular mass index in patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Variable Male (n = 99) Female (n = 62) p value
Age (years) 45.4 ± 10.0 50.1 ± 11.5 0.008
Body mass index (kg/m2) 26.3 ± 3.4 24.6 ± 3.0 0.004
Hypertension 26 (26 %) 22 (36 %) 0.213
Diabetes mellitus 5 (5 %) 1 (2 %) 0.488
Dyslipidemia 32 (32 %) 15 (24 %) 0.27
Current smokers 57 (58 %) 2 (3 %) <0.001
Duration of obstructive HC (months) 12 (2–48) 12 (2–48) 0.729
NYHA functional class    0.636
 I 4 (4 %) 5 (8 %)  
 II 10 (10 %) 4 (7 %)  
 III 71 (72 %) 41 (66 %)  
 IV 14 (14 %) 12 (19 %)  
Syncope 30 (30 %) 23 (37 %) 0.372
Family history of HC 20 (20 %) 16 (26 %) 0.406
Family history of sudden death 11 (11 %) 6 (10 %) 0.773
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 117.2 ± 16.1 117.5 ± 19.3 0.902
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 73.8 ± 11.1 71.6 ± 11.2 0.226
Heart rate (beats/min) 68.6 ± 9.9 70.8 ± 12.8 0.252
Atrial fibrillation 7 (7 %) 6 (10 %) 0.555
Non-sustained ventricular tachycardiaa 4 (5 %) 5 (10 %) 0.433
Medications    
 Beta-blockers 79 (80 %) 45 (73 %) 0.289
 Calcium antagonists 26 (26 %) 25 (40 %) 0.062
 Amiodarone 5 (5 %) 2 (3 %) 0.877
 ACEI/ARB 11 (11 %) 14 (23 %) 0.051
 Statins 10 (10 %) 8 (13 %) 0.583
 Aspirin 25 (25 %) 15 (24 %) 0.880
 Diuretics 4 (4 %) 5 (8 %) 0.466
Laboratory data    
 Serum creatinine (μmol/L) 77.2 ± 11.3 60.1 ± 11.2 <0.001
 eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 101.7 ± 12.8 99.8 ± 14.6 0.386
 Blood glucose (mmol/L) 4.85 ± 0.59 4.85 ± 0.62 0.978
 HbA1c (%) 5.59 ± 0.53 5.60 ± 0.52 0.993
 Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.62 ± 1.01 4.54 ± 1.00 0.604
 HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.07 ± 0.25 1.26 ± 0.30 <0.001
 LDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 2.89 ± 0.92 2.76 ± 0.75 0.380
 Triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.69 ± 0.93 1.52 ± 0.83 0.251
 hs-CRP (mg/L) 1.25 (0.60–2.14) 0.96 (0.40–1.94) 0.318
 NT-proBNP (pmol/L) 1154.1 (775.5–1692.5) 1811.9 (869.6–2816.0) 0.002
 Serum uric acid (μmol/L) 381.2 ± 86.4 309.0 ± 69.3 <0.001
Echocardiography    
 Systolic anterior motion 94 (95 %) 58 (94 %) 0.981
 Moderate or severe mitral regurgitation 36 (36 %) 25 (40 %) 0.614
 LVOTG at rest (mmHg) 77.9 ± 32.5 79.7 ± 32.5 0.735
 LVOTG after provocation (mmHg)b 95.7 ± 28.9 87.8 ± 15.8 0.312
 LVOTG at rest ≥30 mmHg 93 (94 %) 57 (92 %) 0.865
Cardiac magnetic resonance    
 Left atrium diameter (mm) 39.8 ± 7.6 40.7 ± 7.9 0.483
 LV end-diastolic diameter (mm) 46.4 ± 4.1 44.7 ± 4.1 0.010
 Maximum wall thickness (mm) 23.5 ± 4.4 23.0 ± 5.4 0.543
 Maximum wall thickness ≥30 mm 8 (8 %) 5 (8 %) 0.997
 LV ejection fraction (%) 72.2 ± 7.2 72.0 ± 7.3 0.893
 LV mass (g) 180.6 ± 64.9 137.4 ± 53.3 <0.001
 LV end-diastolic volume index (mL/m2) 65.1 ± 14.1 63.9 ± 13.9 0.61
 LV end-systolic volume index (mL/m2) 18.1 ± 6.1 18.1 ± 7.0 0.976
 Stroke volume index (mL/m2) 47.0 ± 11.3 45.8 ± 9.6 0.496
 Cardiac index (L/min/m2) 3.12 ± 0.77 3.13 ± 0.81 0.925
 LV mass index (g/m2) 96.2 ± 32.1 84.4 ± 32.4 0.025
  1. Data are expressed as mean ± SD, number (percentage), or median (interquartile range)
  2. ACEI angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin receptor blocker, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, HbA1c glycated hemoglobin, HC hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, HDL high-density lipoprotein, hs-CRP high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, LDL low-density lipoprotein, LV left ventricular, LVOTG left ventricular outflow tract gradient, NT-proBNP N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, NYHA New York Heart Association
  3. aAmbulatory 24-h Holter monitoring results were available in 127 of the 161 study patients
  4. bLVOTG was provoked in 50 of the 161 study patients