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Fig. 3 | Biology of Sex Differences

Fig. 3

From: Interaction between neonatal maternal deprivation and serum leptin levels on metabolism, pubertal development, and sexual behavior in male and female rats

Fig. 3

Serum levels of leptin (a) and corticosterone at postnatal day (=ND)36 (b) and of corticosterone (c), insulin (d), 17β-estradiol (e), and testosterone (f), at PND90 in maternal deprivation (MD) or control (Co) male and female rats treated with leptin (Lept) or vehicle (Vh) from PND9 until PND13 (n = 7–8). In males, MD decreased leptin and increased insulin and triglyceride levels, with leptin treatment returning insulin and triglycerides to control levels. In contrast in females, MD decreased triglyceride and estradiol levels, which were also normalized by leptin treatment. a Main effect of sex (three-way ANCOVA). b Main effect of MD (two-way ANCOVA). Tukey’s post hoc test:*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.005

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