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Fig. 1 | Biology of Sex Differences

Fig. 1

From: Examination of sex and minocycline treatment on acute morphine-induced analgesia and inflammatory gene expression along the pain pathway in Sprague–Dawley rats

Fig. 1

Mean percent effectiveness of acute morphine analgesia in male and female rats. Male and female rats were treated with either 4 mg/kg or 8 mg/kg of morphine sulfate subcutaneously. Morphine analgesia was measured using a hot plate set at 52.5 °C. The latency to respond to the heat with a rear paw shake or lick was recorded 20, 40, 60, 90, and 120 min post morphine administration. a Morphine produced significantly greater analgesia in males than females at a dose of 4 mg/kg (repeated-measures ANOVA: asterisk represents main effect of sex: F 1,15 = 21.22; p = 0.00040). b Morphine produced significantly greater analgesia in males than females at a dose of 8 mg/kg (repeated-measures ANOVA: asterisk represents main effect of sex: F 1,15 = 49.95; p < 0.001)

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