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Table 3 Sex-related differences in selected echocardiography parameters and molecular markers related to myocardial remodeling assessed in left ventricle in male and female pigs with and without tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy (the results of the two-way ANOVA)

From: Sex differences in porcine left ventricular myocardial remodeling due to right ventricular pacing

Variables (units) Sex HF groups Interactions (sex and HF groups)
F p F p F p
LVEF (%) 0.85 0.36 9.59 < 0.001 1.06 0.38
LVEDV (ml) 6.61 0.02 8.04 < 0.001 2.51 0.08
LVEDV, relative increase (%) 0.26 0.61 3.83 0.019 1.74 0.18
LA/Ao 0.00 0.95 14.79 < 0.001 1.71 0.18
RWTd 0.94 0.34 3.59 0.02 0.64 0.59
Em/Am 0.11 0.74 0.20 0.89 0.25 0.86
BNP, mRNA (AU) 7.16 0.01 3.36 0.03 2.07 0.12
GATA4, mRNA (AU) 5.29 0.03 1.22 0.32 1.04 0.39
TGF-β1, mRNA (AU) 3.43 0.07 0.88 0.46 0.70 0.56
MMP9, mRNA (AU) 0.06 0.81 2.49 0.08 1.81 0.16
TIMP1, mRNA (AU) 0.68 0.42 1.59 0.21 0.74 0.53
NGAL, mRNA (AU) 4.65 0.04 1.00 0.40 1.65 0.20
Col1A1, mRNA (AU) 3.54 0.07 2.67 0.06 0.72 0.55
Col1A2, mRNA (AU) 5.43 0.03 2.51 0.08 1.42 0.26
Col3A1, mRNA (AU) 0.22 0.65 3.68 0.02 0.48 0.70
Water soluble collagen (μg/mg wet tissue) 5.22 0.03 2.59 0.08 0.76 0.53
Total recoverable collagen (μg/mg wet tissue) 0.63 0.43 0.78 0.51 1.59 0.21
Total gelatinolytic activity (AU) 15.59 0.001 1.02 0.40 0.46 0.71
Cross-sectional cardiomyocyte diameter (μm) 5.84 0.02 0.17 0.92 1.78 0.34
  1. LVEF left ventricle ejection fraction, LVEDV left ventricle end-diastolic volume, LVEDV, relative increase LVEDV in end-point/LVEDV 1 month before euthanasia)*100 %, LA/Ao left atrial/aorta ratio, RWTd relative wall thickness at end diastole (2 × LVPWd/LVEDD, LVPWd end-diastolic thickness of left ventricle posterior wall, LVEDD left ventrical end-diastolic diameter), Em/Am the ratio of an early and late diastolic velocity, BNP B-type natriuretic peptide, GATA4 GATA binding protein 4, TGF-β1 transforming growth factor β1, MMP9 matrix metalloproteinase type 9, NGAL neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, TIMP1 tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases type 1, Col1A1 collagen, type I, alpha 1, Col1A2 collagen type I, alpha 2, Col3A1 collagen type III, alpha 1