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Table 2 Echocardiography parameters reflecting the structure and functioning of left ventricle in sham-operated male pigs (controls) and right ventricle paced pigs with induced heart failure

From: Sex differences in porcine left ventricular myocardial remodeling due to right ventricular pacing

  LVEDV, ml LVEDV, relative increase, % LVEF, % LA/Ao RWTd Em/Am
Controls, females 187.5 ± 35.9 115.6 ± 19.7 60.1 ± 8.4 1.43 ± 0.21 0.32 ± 0.04 1.42 ± 0.15
Mild HF, females 197.1 ± 50.5 122.9 ± 23.9 31.7 ± 12.7* 2.24 ± 0.34* 0.32 ± 0.10 2.65 ± 1.62
Moderate HF, females 273.8 ± 66.3* 122.6 ± 14.9 41.2 ± 16.9* 1.94 ± 0.49* 0.28 ± 0.04 1.91 ± 0.40
Severe HF, females 276.2 ± 104.8 99.5 ± 12.4 19.6 ± 6* 2.32 ± 0.19* 0.29 ± 0.06 2.61 ± 1.68
Controls, males 192.4 ± 24.0 120.5 ± 44.8 53.5 ± 8.4 1.38 ± 0.18 0.35 ± 0.06 1.80 ± 0.58
Mild HF, males 238.9 ± 31.1*& 148.9 ± 58.6* 42.4 ± 12.7* 1.96 ± 0.28 0.26 ± 0.05* 2.24 ± 0.87
Moderate HF, males 296.7 ± 41.8* 126.4 ± 62.0 28.0 ± 13.4* 1.98 ± 0.36* 0.27 ± 0.04* 2.51 ± 1.41
Severe HF, males 288.7 ± 34.3*& 96.0 ± 40.5 20.2 ± 6.4* 2.59 ± 0.28* 0.28 ± 0.06* 2.33 ± 0.68
  1. HF heart failure, LVEDV left ventricular end-diastolic volume, LVEDV, relative increase relative increase of left ventricular end diastolic volume (LVEDV measured in end-point/LVEDV 1 month before euthanasia)*100 %; LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, RWTd relative wall thickness at end diastole (2 × LVPWd/LVEDD, LVEDD left ventrical end-diastolic diameter); LA/Ao left atrial/aorta ratio, Em/Am early diastolic to late diastolic velocity ratio. All echocardiography measures were performed directly before a euthanasia. Data are presented as means ± SD
  2. *p < 0.05 vs. control group
  3. &p < 0.05 vs. corresponding female group