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Table 1 Similarities between NPPa of teleosts and mammalian AVPV

From: Sexual dimorphism in the hypophysiotropic tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the preoptic area of the teleost, Clarias batrachus

Neuroanatomical location Anteroventral preoptic area, around the preoptic recess [2, 7, 31, 38]. Ventral position in the periventricular zone of the preoptic nucleus [68].
Dopamine (tyrosine hydroxylase) neurons Contain several DA neurons [7, 8, 12, 13, 39, 47] and serve as an important DAergic neuronal group involved in the regulation of gonadotropin secretion and reproduction [2, 15, 37, 39]. Contain several neurons and serve as a nodal component of neural circuitry controlling gonadotropin secretion [68].
Estrogen receptor (ER) expression Presence of ERα as well as ERβ expression was observed [11, 12, 69, 70]. Contains both ERα and ERβ [23, 74, 75].
TH neurons expressing ER Several TH neurons co-express ER [11, 12]. Harbors TH neurons expressing ERα [75] and ERβ [23].
Sexually dimorphic TH neuronal number Higher in females compared to that in males (present study). Higher in females compared to that in males [23, 24, 76].
Kisspeptin-containing system kiss 2 neurons were seen in the POA [71] at a similar location to the NPOav, and these neurons seem to co-express ER [72]. POA kiss neurons are regulated by gonadal steroids [82; 83]. Harbors kiss 1 neurons [78]; these neurons co-express ER and are regulated by gonadal steroids [79].
Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) neurons and fibers Few CART cells but several fibers [73]. Few CART cells and dense CART innervation [77].
NPY neurons and fibers Few NPY cells and several fibers [8]. NPY cells and fibers were seen in and around AVPV [80].
  1. aNPPa of C. batrachus corresponds to the anterior parvocellular preoptic nucleus (PPa) [46, 47], nucleus preopticus pars anteroventralis (NPOav) [12, 13, 38], anteroventral part of the parvocellular preoptic nucleus (NPOav), nucleus preopticus periventricularis [81], preoptico-hypophyseal dopaminergic (POHDA) neurons [51], and part of the nucleus preopticus parvocellularis anterioris [9] in the anteroventral POA of other teleosts