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Table 4 Female-only whole-brain activation (n = 12)

From: Sex differences in psychophysical and neurophysiological responses to pain in older adults: a cross-sectional study

SPM contrast Cluster region Volume Peak T MNI coordinates
Subregions (BA) (mm3) x y z
Mild Pain < Warmth Right cerebrum   −5.76 34 −68 6
  Temporal lobe 30,040   48 −55 −13
  Parietal lobe 17,528   40 −40 39
  Middle temporal gyrus (21) 13,032   61 −31 1
  Superior temporal gyrus (22) 8800   58 −40 8
  Right postcentral gyrus (1,2,3) 4152   62 −18 27
  Right precentral gyrus 3088   58 5 34
  Right fusiform gyrus (37) 2576   47 −52 −19
  Secondary somatosensory cortex (40) 2120   39 −55 42
  Cuneus 1936   23 −88 17
  Precuneus 1880   23 −60 44
  Premotor cortex (6) 1456   59 −6 37
  Somatosensory association cortex (7) 1344   29 −53 46
  Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (9) 1136   58 5 34
  Primary motor cortex (4) 568   60 −21 44
  Insula 128   41 −28 −3
Moderate Pain > Warmth Cluster 1: left cerebellum   4.50 −30 −76 −42
   Cerebellum posterior lobe 9984   −28 −55 −41
   Cerebellar tonsil 6432   −9 −55 −42
   Cerebellum anterior lobe 4152   −27 −54 −39
   Right cerebellum 2008   8 −51 −43
   Declive 1632   −28 −79 −29
   Culmen 1296   0 −54 −18
   Dentate 496   12 −47 −33
   Pons 416   −2 −19 −26
   Right brainstem 304   6 −47 −45
   Left brainstem 144   −2 −44 −39
  Cluster 2: left cerebrum   12.65 −16 −6 14
   Right cerebrum 12,064   1 4 1
   Temporal lobe 10,664   −36 −50 5
   Right thalamus 6720   4 −3 8
   Right caudate 3336   15 −12 21
   Superior temporal gyrus 3232   −48 −19 −1
   Caudate head 2160   7 10 4
   Left caudate 2032   −15 −2 15
   Parahippocampal gyrus 1720   −30 −41 −10
   Left insula 1712   −29 −24 18
   Pulvinar 1392   6 −26 3
   Left putamen 1312   −27 −14 10
   Left brainstem 1072   −6 −35 −7
   Middle temporal gyrus 896   −37 −49 3
   Ventral posterior cingulate cortex (23) 880   −2 −30 27
   Insula (13) 824   −42 7 −11
   Right middle cingulate cortex 752   1 −22 29
   Anterior cingulate cortex 616   9 23 −8
   Dorsal posterior cingulate cortex (31) 360   5 −47 31
   Subgenual cingulate cortex (25) 328   3 9 −16
  Cluster 3: frontal lobe   4.67 20 44 44
   Superior frontal gyrus 9072   27 47 23
   Middle frontal gyrus 5560   27 52 16
   Anterior cingulate 3184   12 42 13
   Anterior prefrontal cortex (10) 3000   26 49 28
   Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (9) 2088   33 36 31
   Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (32) 1536   −6 35 29
   Ventral anterior cingulate cortex (24) 448   6 29 17
  1. One-sample female-only analysis. Significant clusters were derived using 3dClustSim and the intrinsic smoothness of the data to define corrected whole-brain cluster thresholds as those having a voxel level p = 0.05, cluster volume 1659 voxels, volume >120 mm3, and family wise error corrected p = 0.05. Areas are reported with the parent cluster first defined by Peak T, followed by subregions within each cluster (MNI coordinates of subregions are approximate). Mild pain < warmth = deactivations; moderate pain > armth = activations
  2. SPM Statistical Parametric Mapping, BA Brodmann area, MNI Montreal Neuroimaging Institute