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Table 3 Health and social functioning among men and women

From: Sex differences in substance use, health, and social functioning among opioid users receiving methadone treatment: a multicenter cohort study

   Sex Adjusted analyses, men vs. women
Outcome Total Men Women OR/MD 95 % CI Adjusted p
  n = 492 n = 266 n = 226    
Physical health symptoms       
 MAP physical symptoms score; mean (SD) 15.8 (7.7) 14.5 (7.8) 17.4 (7.3) 3.18 1.83, 4.53 <0.001
 HIV+ status; n (%) 4 (0.8) 4 (1.5) 0 (0) -- -- --
 HCV+ status; n (%) 122 (24.7) 73 (27.4) 49 (21.7) 0.88 0.57, 1.38 0.815
 Presence of chronic pain; n (%) 173 (35.0) 94 (35.3) 78 (34.5) 1.31 0.87, 1.97 0.368
Mental health symptoms       
 MAP psychological symptoms score; mean (SD) 13.3 (8.8) 12.0 (8.4) 14.7 (9.1) 2.77 1.20, 4.34 0.007
 Family psychiatric history; n (%) 350 (70.9) 167 (62.8) 182 (80.5) 2.36 1.53, 3.62 <0.001
Health risk behavior in the prior month       
 Injected drugs; n (%) 53 (10.8) 34 (12.8) 19 (8.4) 0.56 0.30, 1.02 0.146
 Unprotected sex; n (%) 212 (42.9) 117 (44.0) 95 (42.0) 0.80 0.55, 1.18 0.426
Employment       
 Currently employed; n (%) 175 (35.6) 114 (42.9) 61 (27.1) 0.46 0.31, 0.68 <0.001
 Paid work in the past month, days; median (Q 1, Q 3) 0 (0, 16) 8 (0, 20) 0 (0, 4) −0.04 −0.21, 0.13 0.825
 Unemployed in the past month, days; median (Q 1, Q 3) 30 (0, 30) 30 (0, 30) 30 (0, 30) 0.02 −0.04, 0.07 0.828
Criminal activity       
 Committed crime; n (%) 26 (5.3) 18 (6.8) 8 (3.5) −0.04 −0.08, 0.00 0.148
Interpersonal relations       
 Married/common-law; n (%) 156 (31.8) 85 (32.1) 70 (31.2) 0.94 0.63, 1.39 0.855
 Have children; n (%) 309 (62.9) 144 (54.1) 164 (73.2) 2.88 1.90, 4.36 <0.001
Conflict with partner in the past month, percent; median (Q 1, Q 3) 0 (0, 7) 0 (0, 3) 0 (0, 10) 0.11 −0.29, 0.50 0.078
 Conflict with family in the past month, percent; median (Q 1, Q 3) 0 (0, 7) 0 (0, 3) 0 (0, 13) 0.42 0.05, 0.80 0.800
  1. All analyses have been adjusted for age, methadone dose, and duration of treatment using multivariable regression and for multiple testing error using false discovery rate; results for binary variables reported as OR and results for continuous variables reported as MD. Regression model estimates for HIV+ status were undeterminable
  2. MAP Maudsley Addiction Profile, SD standard deviation, HIV human immunodeficiency virus, HCV: hepatitis C virus, Q 1 quartile 1, Q 3 quartile 3, OR odds ratio, MD mean difference, CI confidence interval