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Table 3 Sex differences in serology and extraglandular manifestations during Sjögren’s syndrome

From: Sex differences in Sjögren’s syndrome: a comprehensive review of immune mechanisms

Study (reference) site Classification criteria n (F/M) Serologic differences F > M Extraglandular manifestations F > M
1986 Molina [100] USA N/A 105 (69/36) RF, Ro/SSA, La/SSB No differences
1995 Anaya [102] USA European [103] 39 (26/13) No differences No differences
1997 Drosos [103] Greece European [103] 42 (30/12) ANA, Ro/SSA Raynaud’s phenomenon, polyarthritis
1999 Brennan [104] USA European [103] 42 (28/14) ANA, Ro/SSA Fatigue
1999 Saito [113] Japan American-European [13] 129 (117/12) Not performed Inflammation, sialectasis
2000 Cervera [101] Spain European [103] 223 (204/19) RF, ANA Raynaud’s phenomenon, cutaneous vasculitis, polyarthritis
2004 Diaz-Lopez [105] Spain European [103] 549 (521/28) M > F: RF, ANA, IgA Fibromyalgia, thyroiditis
2007 Goeb [106] France American-European [13] 148 (137/11) ANA, Ro/SSA, La/SSB Raynaud’s phenomenon
2008 Horvath [107] Hungary American-European [13] 492 (432/60) No differences Raynaud’s phenomenon, thyroiditis
2008 Gondran [108] France American-European [13] 419 (377/42) No differences Lymphopenia, leucopenia
2008 Ramos-Casals [109] Spain European [103] 1,010 (938/73) ANA Raynaud’s phenomenon, thyroiditis