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Table 2 Research gaps in our understanding of sex differences in OA

From: Hormonal modulation of connective tissue homeostasis and sex differences in risk for osteoarthritis of the knee

1. Lack of good epidemiologic information on heterogeneity in both the female and male populations with respect to hormonal status v. incidence and severity of OA.
2. Need for basic science studies on the etiology of OA in males v. females.
3. Lack of valid preclinical in vitro and in vivo models of osteoarthritis.
4. Absence of studies specifically examining sex hormone mechanisms in cells from knee tissues.
5. Uncertainty about the role of inflammation at the cell, tissue, and organ levels.
6. Need to determine if the risk for loss of knee function and integrity in females is restricted to only the knee or if sex-specific changes in other tissues play a role.